Like most books, this one would never have been written without the encouragement, criticism, skepticism, and selfless devotion of many people. First among those people are the Indians who challenged me to find in the white man's archives documentary proof to buttress Indian oral history. Thanks go to John Crazy Bear, a Seneca whose ancestors helped make an American of Benjamin Franklin, and to Phil Lucas, who provided early help with research leads, as well as Vine Deloria, Jr., whose encouragement (not to mention his many books) helped inspire me.
Thanks go also to Sheldon Harsel, Alex Edelstein, Vernon Carstensen, and Russel Barsh, as well as William E. Ames, all of the University of Washington, who provided invaluable criticism, and who were willing to listen to ideas for which other academics might have threatened to bust me down to a B.A. and hustle me off to the nut house. Roberto F. Maestas, a Chicano Pueblo, director of Seattle's El Centro de la Raza and compadre co-author of many years, also helped provide focus to the many drafts of this book. Alvin Josephy, Jr., also deserves many thanks for his criticisms and opinions of an early draft, as does Bruce Brown.
Invaluable aid also was given by many librarians and archivists, some of whom work at the University of Washington Libraries, the New York City Public Library, the American Philosophical Society, the Library of Congress (General Collection and Manuscript Division), the Department of Interior's Library, the Newberry Library, in Chicago, and the Smithsonian Institution's National Anthropological Archives.
Many thanks go also to my aunt and uncle, who put up this savage from the mountains of western America in a style to which he ought never to become accustomed in Washington, D.C., and to Judy Ruben, who ensured that I would stay alive on meager means on Manhattan Island, not an easy task these days.
To all of you, and to Lovell Thompson and Mark Saxton of Gambit: you wouldn't be seeing this book if it weren't for your part in making it possible.