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I N D E X




[The index has been included verbatim from the original book. Although page numbers have no meaning here, it was felt the subjects noted are useful as a reference. The original chapter page numbers are listed below to facilitate cross-referencing --ratitor]

  INTRODUCTION                                              xi

  CHAPTER ONE A Composite Culture                            3

  CHAPTER TWO The Pre-Columbian Republic                    21
 
  CHAPTER THREE "Our Indians Have Outdone the Romans"       33

  CHAPTER FOUR Such an Union                                56

  CHAPTER FIVE Philosopher as Savage                        77
  
  CHAPTER SIX Self-Evident Truths                           98

  AFTERWORD                                                119

  BIBLIOGRAPHY                                             127




  ADAIR, James
    History of the American Indians (1775), quoted, 40.
  ADAMS, John
    Mentioned, 15.  Refuses Jefferson's request to write 
      Declaration of Independence, 100.  Admires Thomas 
      Jefferson's "masterly pen," 100.  Edits Thomas 
      Jefferson's declaration, 100.
  AKWESASNE NOTES (Mohawk journal)
    Publisher of Great Law of Peace, 21, 23.
  ALBANY, New York
    As frontier outpost, 42, 69.  As frequent site of treaty 
      councils, 53.  Courthouse, 69, Dutch architecture in, 
      69.  Canassatego visits, 90.
  ALBANY CONGRESS, ALBANY PLAN OF UNION, 65.  
    Franklin on Archibald Kennedy at, 65.  Iroquois' issues 
      at, 68.  Benjamin Franklin represents Pennsylvania at.  
      Proceedings, 69-76.  Purposes of meeting, 69.  Approval 
      of Benjamin Franklin's plan of union, 70, 72.  Debate on
      Albany plan, 70-71.  Provisions of Albany plan 71-73.  
      Similar to Iroquois system, 72.  Rejected by Colonial 
      Assemblies, 74.  As basis for Benjamin Franklin's 
      Articles of Confederation, 75.
  ALDRIDGE, ALFRED 0.
    On Benjamin Franklin and Deism, 89.
  ALEXANDER, James
    And Albany plan, 70.
  AMERICAN PHILOSOPHICAL SOCIETY
    Benjamin Franklin and, 64.
  AMERICAN REVOLUTION
    Mentioned, xvi, 34, 54.  
    Role of Iroquois thought in, 14-15.  
    Indian battle tactics in, 37.  
    Upper classes flee, 110.  
    Natural rights and, 115.
  ANGLES, 106.
  ANGLO-SAXONS
    Jefferson, natural rights of, 115.
  ARMSTRONG, John (Indian trader)
    Murdered by Delawares, 61.
  ATOTARHO (Office of chief sachem, Iroquois Confederacy), 22,
    25.

  BERKHOFER, Robert F.
    Quotes John Locke, 120.
  BRITAIN, BRITISH (See also:  England, English)
    Mentioned, 34, 35.  
    "Cold war" with France, 44-45.  
    Source of immigration, 34.  
    Trade with Iroquois, Lancaster treaty (1744), 46, 47.
    Motivations of trade, gifts, 47.
    Rivalry with France, 59.
    Iroquois deny King's authority, 62.
    War with France, 66.
    Parliament compared to Indian councils, 74.
    Rejects Albany plan, 74.
    Spies watch Benjamin Franklin, 74.
    Taxes inflame colonists, 75.
    Evict French from North America (1763), 77.
    Agents cut gift-giving, 78.
    Separation of America from, 97.
    Benjamin Franklin, Jefferson study history of, 115.
    Soldiers' tactics unsuited to America, 117-118.
  BOAS, Franz
    And cultural relativism, 84.
  BOHANAN, Paul
    Cited, 6.
  BOSTON
    Mentioned, 33, 47.
    Benjamin Franklin flees as youth, 56.
  BOSTON TEA PARTY
    Tea dumpers dressed as Mohawks, 75
  BOYD, Julian P.
    Indian treaties printed by Benjamin Franklin, 62f.
  BRANDON, William
    Cited, 16.
  BRITISH CONSTITUTION
    Mentioned, 11.
  BRITISH CROWN
    Pursues Iroquois alliance, 31, 33, 42, 53.
    Imposes Colonial taxes, 75.
    And Iroquois title, 78.
    Ownership of America debated,  106-107.
  BRITISH HOUSE OF COMMONS
    Benjamin Franklin compares to Indian councils, 86-87.
    In Declaration of Independence, 102.
    Challenged by American ideas, 117.
  BUFFALO BILL, 121.
  de BUFFON, Count
    95.  
    Propounds degeneracy theories, 95.

  CANADA
    Aristocrats flee from American Revolution, 110.
    Mentioned, 118.
  CANASSATEGO
    Mentioned, 49, 79.
    At Lancaster treaty (1744), 12, 14, 46-64, 67, 86.
    On effects of European gifts, 46-47.
    Pledges alliance with English, 46, 61.
    Personal sketch, 48.
    Speaker of Grand Council, 48.
    Oratory, 48.
    Death (1750), 49, 69.
    Friendship with Conrad Weiser, 52, 88, 90.
    Salutes Weiser at Lancaster treaty (1744), 52.
    Urges Colonial union, 54, 60 (quoted), 75-76, 85-86.
    Refutes Maryland land claims, 59-60.
    Criticizes Indian traders, 64.
    Recalled by Hendrick (1754), 70.
    Advice on union recalled by colonists (1775), 75-76.
    On English education, 86.
    Recalled by Benjamin Franklin, 88.
    On Christianity, 89 90.
  CARLISLE, Pennsylvania
    Treaty council at (1753), 66, 87.
    Issues at 1753 council, 66-67.
  CARRINGTON, Edward
    Letter from Jefferson, 98, 102.
  CARTIER
    First contact with Iroquois, z2.
  CATO
    Mentioned, xiv.
  CAYUGAS
    Mentioned, 21.
    Role in Grand Council, 24.
  CELTS
    Relation to Indians debated, 94
    Studied by Benjamin Franklin, Jefferson, 115.
    Tribal democracy of, 117.
  CHAMBERLIN, J.  E., The Harrowing of Eden (1975)
    Cited, 19.
  CHARLESTON, South Carolina
    Mentioned, 33, 47
  CHEROKEES
    Geographical position, 33-34.
  CHINARD, Gilbert
    On Jefferson:  Saxon liberties,
  CHRISTIANITY
    Indians as counterpart to, 91.
    Canassatego on, 91, 92.
  COHEN, Felix
    "Americanizing the White Man," 3, 7, 13, 14-15.
    Indians' democratic traditions, 13.
    Role of women, Indian cultures, 13, 19.
    Indian governments' federalism, 13-14.
  COLDEN, Rev. Alexander
    Father of Cadwallader Colden, 36.
  COLDEN, Cadwallader
    "Indians have outdone the Romans," xiv, 36-37, 39, 41, 84.
    Iroquois and liberty, 33.
    On Iroquois sociopolitical system, 36.
    Sketch of life, 36.
    Indians as "living images" of European ancestors, 37.
    Iroquois and use of public opinion, 38, 112.
    Mentioned, 121.
    Iroquois and political liberty, 40.
    Need for alliance with Iroquois, 41, 42, 67.
    Importance of fur trade, 43.
    Political purposes of trade with Indians, 44-45.
    Participant in treaty councils, 47.
    Relations with William Johnson, 51.
    As Deist, 89.
    Correspondence with Benjamin Franklin:  Colonial union, 
      62-63.
    And Albany plan, 69.
    Urges regulation of Indian trade, 73.
  COLLINSON, Peter
    Letter from Benjamin Franklin, 92-93.
  COLUMBUS, Christopher
    Mentioned, 3, 13.
    Voyage narratives, 35.
  COMMAGER, Henry Steele
    Cited, xvi, 8f.
    On state of nature and happiness, 112.
    On Enlightenment thought, 120.
  CONCORD, Massachusetts
    Battle of (1775), 75, 99.
  CONTINENTAL CONGRESS
    Mentioned, 75.
    And Declaration of Independence, 8-100.
    Jefferson requested to author declaration, 100.
    Jefferson's reputation at, 100.
  Conestoga manor, Pennsylvania, CONESTOGA INDIANS
    Indians attacked at (1763), 79.
    Indians attacked at Lancaster, 79.
    Remnant of Iroquois, 80.
    Massacre described by Benjamin Franklin, 80.
  CONSTITUTION, United States
    Mentioned, 15, 17, 18.
    Benjamin Franklin on, 105.
  CONSTITUTIONAL CONVENTION, United States
    Benjamin Franklin at, 72.
  CONSTITUTION, Virginia
    Jefferson and, 100.
  CROGHAN, George
    Land interests, Ohio Valley, 107f.
  CUSTER BATTLE, 121.
  
  DECLARATION OF INDEPENDENCE
    Posted in Philadelphia, 98.
    Jefferson authors, 110, 111.
    Ideas in, 102, 108, 117.
    And right of revolution, 118.
  DEER PIGEON (Iroquois Clan), 28.
    And Cadwallader Colden, 62.
    And Benjamin Franklin, 62-63, 89.
    Description of, 89.
    As "natural religion," 89-90.
    And universal moral sense, 89.
    And Indian thought, 92.
  DEGANWIDAH (Founder of Iroquois Confederacy), 12, 22, 26.
  DELAWARE INDIANS
    Murder of John Armstrong, Indian trader, 61.
  DOBYNS, Henry
    Estimates of Indian populations, 124.
  DONEGAL, Pennslyvania
    Vigilantes attack Indians (1763),
  DONGAN, New York governor
    On Iroquois military prowess, 45.
  DUTCH
    Privateers raid near Philadelphia, 63.
    
  EASTON, Pennsylvania
    As site of treaty councils, 53.
    Treaty council at (1777)
  ECKERT, Allan W.
    Cited, 18.
  EDWARDS, Samuel
    Biographer of Tom Paine, 116.
  EISELEN, Malcolm R.
    Benjamin Franklin, Indians and state if nature, 92.
  ENGELS, Frederich
    And Lewis Henry Morgan, 19.
    Mentioned, 121.
    On Indian societies,121-123.
    Inherits Marx's notes, 122.
    Writes Origin of the Family . . . , 122.
    Cites Morgan, 122.
    On property among Iroquois, 123.
    Iroquois as stateless society, 123.
  ENGLAND, ENGLISH (See also:  Britain, British)
    Visit of Squanto (1614), 4.
    Political motivations of Indian gifts, 45.
    Rivalry with France, 30, 31, 34, 46, 51, 53.
    Benjamin Franklin as Colonial representative in, 57, 82.
    Conflicts with Iroquois:  land claims, 59.
    Natural rights theories in, 121.
    
  FIVE NATIONS (See also:  Six Nations, Iroquois)
    Liberty noted:  Colden, 33.
    Society described:  Colden, 36.
    Unity, described by Canassatego, 61-62.
    Albany plan and, 72-73.
  FORT STANWIX
    Treaty council at (1768), 107f.
  FRANCE, FRENCH
    As source of immigration, 35.
    Rivalry with English, 30, 31, 34, 46, 51, 53, 58, 60.
    Builds forts in Ohio Valley, 42.
    Economic "cold war" with England, 44.
    Seeks alliance with Iroquois, 62.
    Privateers raid near Philadelphia (1747), 63.
    War with Britain, 66-67.
    British alliances against, 66.
    Attacks Pickawillany, 66.
    Attacks Twightwees (1752), 66.
    Loss of war with Britain, 77-78.
    Benjamin Franklin in, 82.
  FRANKLIN, Benjamin
    Use of Iroquois as political model, xiv-xv, 8, 10, 12-13,
      15, 20.
    Mentioned, xii, xiii, 120, 122, 124.
    Admiration of Iroquois, 11.
    Albany Plan of Union and, 18, 68. 
      Pennsylvania representative at congress, 69.  Influence
      at congress, 69.  Plan approved by congress, 70.  
      Provisions of plan, 70-71.  Diplomatic context, 71.  
      Plan rejected by Colonial assemblies, 73-74.  Plan and 
      Iroquois alliance, 79.
    Travel conditions, 35.
    Involved in treaty councils, 47.
    In Iroquois diplomacy, 31.
    Appeal of Indian life, 50, 92-93.
    Friendship with Conrad Weiser, 52, 58.
    Begins printing treaty accounts, 54,
    Becomes Indian commissioner, 54.
    And Iroquois ideas, 54.
    On Iroquois union, 56.
    Youth in Boston, 56.
    Establishes Pennsylvania Gazette, Poor Richard's
      Almanack, 57.
    Prints Lancaster treaty account (1744), 62.
    Correspondence with Colden:  Colonial union, 63.
    Organizes Philadelphia militia, 63.
    Requests Colden's book, 63.
    Colonial interests diverge from Britain, 63-64.
    On federal character of Iroquois confederation, 64.
    American Philosophical Society, postal service as Colonial
      ties, 64.
    Relations with Archibald Kennedy, 64.
    Correspondence with James Parker, 56, 65.
    Urges regulation of Indian trade, 64.
    Urges Colonial union, 65-69.
    Cites Iroquois union, 65.
    Reads report on Indian agents, 66.
    Urges regulation of traders, 66, 73.
    Begins diplomatic career as Indian envoy (1753), 66-67, 
      77.
    In context of British policy, 66.
    Urges alliance with Iroquois, 66.
    Indians abuse alcohol, 68.
    Publishes "Join or Die" cartoon, 71.
    Cites Kennedy's brochure, 71.
    Recalls Hendrick, 71.
    Favors one-house legislature, 72.
    Recognized as advocate of union, 73, 74/
    And federalism, 73.
    Compares Indian councils to British parliament, 74.
    Iroquois' prodding for union, 74.
    Spied on by British, 74.
    And Articles of Confederation, 75.
    On Indians' distaste for class society, 76, 103.
    As Philadelphia's first citizen, 77.
    Represents Pennsylvania at Royal Court, 78, 82, 107f.
    Characterized (1763), 77-78.
    On Lancaster massacre, 79-80.
    Organizes militia against Paxton Men, 81.
    Loses seat in Pennsylvania assembly, 82.
    Departs for England (1764), 82.
    Called "philosopher as savage," 83, 109.
    Admires simplicity of Indian life, 83, 85.
    Indians and happiness, 83, 102.
    Indians and "happy mediocrity," 83.
    Indians and natural rights, 83.
    Indians and social role of property, 84, 104-105, 116.
    Indians and public opinion, 84, 87, 102, 112.
    Lack of ethnocentricism in writings, 84.
    And cultural relativism, 84-85.
    And Enlightenment thought, 84.
    Cites Canassatego on English education, 86.
    Decorum at Indian councils, 87.
    Indians' recall of oral history, 87.
    Compares Indian councils to House of Commons, 87.
    On Indian hospitality, 88.
    Use of Indian metaphors, 88.
    Use of Indians to lampoon religious pomposity, 89-90.
    As Deist, 89 91.
    On religion as cover for exploitabon 90.
    Possibie author of hoax (1768) 91.
    Indians as "original men,' 92 94.
    Collects Indian grammars, 94.
    Opposes degeneracy theories, 94-95.
    Pragmatism regarding Indians, 95.
    Defends Americans in Europe, 96.
    House in Philadelphia 99.
    Declines to write Deciaration of Independence, 99.
    Edits Jefferson:  Declaration of Independence, 99.
    Death (1791), 100.
    As ambassador to France, 100-101.
    Indians as metaphor for liberty, 83-84, 102.
    On compensation for government service, 105.
    Opposes property qualifications:  voting, 105.
    On Indians' property rights, 105-106.
    Western land speculation of, 106-107f.
    On British claim to America, 106.
    Correspondence with Jefferson:  aristocracy, 109-110.
    On American distinctiveness 111.
    On corruption and power, 111-112.
    On public opinion and liberty, 112.
    Studies Romans, Celts, 115.
    Natural rights as European heritage, 115.
    Invites Tom Paine to America, 116.
    Organizes revolutionary efforts, 117.
    Use of European theories by, 120.
    Reputation in Europe, 121.
    Iroquois as stateless society, 112-123.
    As witness to history, 124.
  FRANKLIN, William
    Participant in treaty councils, 47.
    Correspondence with Benjamin Franklin:  Indian affairs, 
      82.
    As envoy to Indians, 106-107f.
    Western land interests, 106-107f.

  GAGE, General
    Troops requested, 79.
  GERMANY
    Source of immigration, 35.
    Anglo-Saxon migration to England, 100.
  GILLESPIE, James E.
    On Locke, Hobbes, 121.
  GOODMAN, Dr.  Jeffry, 124.
  GORDON, Pennsylvania Governor
    Seeks alliance with Iroquois, 48.
  GREAT BEAR (Iroquois clan), 28.
  GREAT LAW OF PEACE (Kaianerakowa)
    Political ideas in, xiv.
    Separation of civil, military power, 10-11.
    Religious toleration under, 12, 29.  
    Checks and balances, 11, 24.
    Role of women, 15, 29.
    Benjamin Franklin's use as political model, 16.  
    Mentioned, 18, 21.
    Beginning date, conjecture, 21-22.  
    Provisions of, 23-29, 40.  
    Translation into English, 23.  
    Great Tree of Peace:  metaphor for union, 23.
    Adoption laws, 24, 40.  
    Rules for debate:  Grand Council, 24.  
    Decisionmaking structure, 25.  
    Amendments, 25.  
    Qualifications of statesmen, 26.  
    Deportment of statesmen, 26.
    Impeachment, 27.
    Penalties for murder, 26.
    Public opinion and, 27.
    Election of pine-tree chiefs, 27-28.
    War chiefs:  election and duties, 28.
    Clans cross political boundaries, 28.
    Popular redress, 29.
    National self-determination, 29.
    Sanctity of homes, 29.
    Recorded on wampum belts, 29-30.
    Lack of racial prejudice in, 51.
    Compared to United Nations' declaration of rights, 123-124.
  GREECE
    Democratic traditions, 117.
  GRIFFIS, William E.
    Cited, 10.
  GRINDE, Donald
    Cited, xiii, 19, 20.
  HALE, Horatio
    Cited, 18-19.
  HALLOWELL, A. Irving
    Cited, 6, 15.
  HAMILTON, James
    Appoints Benjamin Franklin to Carlisle Treaty Commission 
      (1753), 66.
  HAMILTON, Milton W.
    On Hendrick's eloquence, 49.
  HAWK (Iroquois clan), 28.
  HANSON, Hans, Beaver trader And Canassatego, 90.
  HENDRICK (Tiyanoga)
    Mentioned, 78.
    At Albany congress, 18.
    Participant at treaty councils, 48.
    Personal sketch, 49.
    Principal chief of Mohawks, 49.
    Eloquence, 49.
    Friendship with William Johnson, 49-50, 51.
    Special invitation to Albany congress, 69.
    Advice on Colonial union, 70.
    Recalls Canassatego, 70.
    Recalled by Benjamin Franklin, 71.
  HENRY, Thomas R.
    Cited, 15.
  HEWITT, J. N. B.
    Cited, 10, 15, 18.
  HIAWATHA
    Founder of Iroquois Confederacy, 22.
  HOBBES, Thomas
    Familiarity with Indian societies, 120.
    Indian influence, Leviathan, 121.
  HOUSE OF COMMONS (British)
    Report on Americans' battle tactics, 117.
  HOWARD, Helen A.
    Cited, 18.
  HUTCHINSON, Thomas
    Aids Benjamin Franklin;  Albany Plan of Union, 70.
    
  INDEPENDENCE HALL, 99.
  IROQUOIS, IROQUOIS CONFEDERACY (See also:  Five Nations Six
      Nations)
    Political system, brief description, xiv.
    Alliance with English, xv.
    Government compared to that of United States, 8-20.
    Democratic political structure, 18-19.
    Engels on, 19.
    Beginnings, 21-22.
    As balance of power, 31.
    Alliance sought by British, French, 30-35, 42, 45, 46-47,
      52, 53, 58-59.
    Colden describes, 36.
    Compared to Romans, 36, 37, 39, 60.
    Compared to Greeks, 41, 60.
    Compared to Celts and Druids, 37
    As original form of government, 37.
    Public opinion in, 38.
    Voluntary poverty of chiefs, 39.
    Personal liberty, 40.
    Role of women, 41.
    Oratory, 41, 47-48.
    Derivation of "Iroquois," French word, 41.
    Military power, 42 45.
    Strategic geographical position, 34, 42, 45, 59.
    Hold trade route, 43.
    Influence with other Indian nations, 45.
    William Johnson among, 50-51.
    And Lancaster treaty council (1744), 52-62.
    Conrad Weiser and, 51.
    Cement alliance with English (1744), 58.
    Delegation arrives at Lancaster (1744), 59.
    Maryland land claims refuted, 60-61.
    Assert independence from King, 62.
    Federal character of government, 64.
    French attack allies of, 66.
    Issues at Albany congress (1754), 68.
    And London Board of Trade, 68.
    Arrival at Albany congress, 69.
    Described, at Albany congress, 69-70.
    Iroquois example and Albany plan, 72.
    Urge regulation:  Indian trade, 73.
    Problems with squatters, 73.
    At Philadelphia conference (1775), 75.
    Advice recalled:  Colonial union, 75-76.
    Influence in Ohio Valley, 45, 66, 78.
    As counterpoint in Europe, 91.
    Tom Paine and, 116.
    Territory divided by Treaty of Paris (1783), 118.
    And "burned-over district," 121.
    
  JACOBS, William
    Cited:  Indian giffs and British mercantilism, 47.
  JEFFERSON Thomas
    Mentioned xii, xiv, 84, 120.
    Use of Indiians as political model, xvi, 8, 19-20.
    Indians and natural rights, 17, 84, 102.
    As Deist, 89.
    Collects Indian grammars, 94.
    Opposes degeneracy theories, 95-96.
    America as new nation, 96.
    Indians and "happiness," 98, 102.
    Declaration of Independence edited by Benjamin Franklin, 
      100.
    Agrees to write declaration, 100.
    Reputation at Continental Congress, 100.
    Rues editing by committee, 100.
    Admiration for Benjamin Franklin, 101.
    Ambassador to France after Benjamin Franklin, 100-101.
    Ideas:  Declaration of Independence, 102.
    Indian ideas and declaration, 101.
    Indians and public opinion, 84, 102-103, 112-113.
    Indians as metaphor for liberty, 102-111, 114.
    Contrast:  Indian egalitarianism and European class 
      societies, 103, 108-109, 110, 123.
    Prefers "happiness" to "property," 103-104.
    On aristocracy, 103-104, 108.  To Benjamin Franklin on, 
      110.  Loathes monarchy, 111, 117.
    On European class society, 103, 104.
    On property, 104, 108, 116.
    "Indian society may be best . . . ," 108.
    Calls self "savage from . . . America," 109.
    Critique:  French bill of rights, 110.
    Advocates progressive taxation, 110.
    On corruption and power, 111-112.
    Public opinion and liberty, 112-114.
    Indian societies:  popular consent, 114-115.
    On right of revolution, 113-114.
    On impeachment, 114.
    Studies Romans, Celts, 115.
    On natural rights as European heritage, 115.
    Use of European theories, 119.
  JENNINGS, Francis
    Cited, 19.
  JEWS
    Relation to Indians conjectured, 94.
  JOHNSON, Sir William
    Mentioned, 10.
    Adopted by Iroquois, 24.
    Participant in treaty councils, 47.
    Friendship with Hendrick, 49-50, 51.
    Personal sketch, 50.
    As spokesman for Iroquois, 51.
    Dresses as Iroquois, 50, 51.
    Sexual exploits, 51.
    And Cadwallader Colden, 51.
    And William Penn, 79.
    And Benjamin Franklin:  Indian affairs, 82.
    Land interests:  Ohio Valley, 106-107f.
    
  KAMES, Lord
    Correspondence with Benjamin Franklin, 81-82.
  KENNEDY, Archibald
    Work read by Benjamin Franklin, 64, 66.
    Urges regulation of traders, 64, 73.
    Urges alliance with Iroquois, 65.
    Urges Colonial unity, 64, 67.
    Friendship cultivated by Benjamin Franklin, 65.
    Work cited by Benjamin Franklin, 69.
  KERCHEVAL, Samuel
    Letter from Jefferson, 109.
  KOCH, Adrienne
    Cited, 121.
  KRAMER, Frank
    Cited, 121.
  KRAUS Michael
    Cited 120.
    
  LAFITAU, Joseph Francois
    Iroquois compared to Romans, 39.
  LANCASTER, Penn., LANCASTER TREATY COUNCILS
    As frequent council site, 53.
    Treaty council at (1744), 57-62, 65.
    Colonists recall 1744 council (1775), 75-76.
    "Paxton Men" attack Indians at, 79.
    "Paxton Men" assemble at, 81.
  LANCASTER MASSACRE
    Described, deplored by Benjamin Franklin, 79-80.  
  de LANCY, James, New York governor
    Invites Hendrick to Albany congress, 69.
    Meets with Hendrick, et. al., 69-70.
  LEAGUE OF NATIONS, 10. 
  LE BOEUF
    French fort at, 66.
  LEXINGTON, Mass.
    Battle of (1775), 75, 99.
  LLOYD, Herbert M.
    Cited, 9-10.
  LOCKE, John
    Mentioned, xiv, 14, 120.
    On property, 120.
    Familiarity with Indian societies, 120.
  LOGAN
    Son of Shickallemy, 49.
    Speech recorded by Jefferson, 49.
  LONDON
    Mentioned, 47.
    Declaration of Independence arrives at, 98.  
  LONDON BOARD OF TRADE
    And Albany congress, 68.
    
  MAGNA CHARTA, 11.
  MARSHE, Witham
    Describes Canassatego, 48.
  MARTYR, Peter, 17.
  MARYLAND
    Delegation at Lancaster treaty (1744), 46, 58, 59.
    Disputes Iroquois land claim, 60.
  MARX, Karl
    Investigates Iroquois sociopolitical structure 19.
    Mentioned 121.
    On Indian societies, 121-123.
    Study of anthropology, 122.
    Admires Iroquoian democracy, egalitarianism, 122.
    Death of, 122.
  MATHUR, Mary E.
    Cited, 18.
  McGUFFY'S READER

    Logan's speech in, 49.
  MISSISSIPPI VALLEY
    Iroquois influence in, 45.
  MOHAWKS
    Mentioned, 21, 30.
    Internal decisionmaking 23.
    Role in Grand Council, 23.
    Relations with William Johnson, 50, 51.
    Adoption of Conrad Weiser, 58.
    Keepers of "Eastern Door," 69.
    Proximity to Albany, 69.
    Disguise, Boston Tea Party, 75.
  MONTESQUIEU, 14.
  MORE, Thomas
    Author of Utopia, 14.
    On property, 120.
    Indian influence:  Utopia, 121.
  MORGAN, Lewis Henry
    League of the Iroquois, 8, 9.
    Works read by Marx and Engels, 19, 122.
    Friend of Ely Parker, 122.
    Adopted by Iroquois, 122.
    Cited by Engels, 122.
  MONROE, James
    Letter from Jefferson, 1ll.
  MORMONISM
    Possible Indian influence, 121.

  NEWBOLD, Robert
    Cited, 44.
  NEW ENGLAND CONFEDERATION
    (1643), 16
  NEW FRANCE
    Ideas:  France, 121.
  NEWHOUSE, Seth
    Transcribes Great Law of Peace into English, 23.
  NEW YORK
    Mentioned, 44, 45.
    Official contacts with Shickallemy, 48.
  NORRIS, Isaac
    Carlisle treaty commissioner, 67.
    Urges regulation of Indian trade, 68.

  OHIO, OHIO COUNTRY, OHIO VALLEY
    Iroquois influence in, 45, 67.
    Scotch-Irish immigration into, 78.        
    Pontiac's rebellion, 78.      
    Benjamin Franklin's visit (1776), 79-80.
    Benjamin Franklin's land interests in, 106-107f.  
  OLD TESTAMENT, 40.  
  ONEIDAS
    Mentioned, 21.
    Role in Grand Council, 23.
  ONONDAGAS, ONONDAGA New York
    Mentioned, 21.
    Site of Grand Council fire, 23, 24.
    Role in Grand Counicl, 23.
    Canassatego as council speaker, 58.
    Lancaster Massacre and, 79.  
  OSWEGO, New York
    Trading house at, 44.
    
  PACIFIC OCEAN, 33
  PAINE, Tom
    Arrives in America, 116.
    Attends treaty council (Easton 1777), 116.
    Learns Iroquois language 116.
    Seeks Iroquois alliance, 116.
    Fascinated by Iroquois, 116.
    On Indians and property, 116.
    Civilization:  cause of poverty, 116.
    Jefferson in (1785), 109.
    Peace treaty (1783), 118.  
  PARKER, Arthur C.
    On Iroquois society, 10.
    On Iroquois Confederacy beginnings, 21.
    Great Law of Peace, 28.  
  PARKER, Ely
    Mentioned, 8.
    And L. H. Morgan, 122.  
  PARKER, James
    Correspondence with Franklin, 56, 65, 71.
  de PAUW
    Expounds degeneracy theories, 95.
  PAXTON, Penn., "PAXTON MEN"
    Vigilantes attack Indians (1763), 79.
    Vigilantes invade Lancaster, 79.
    Criticized by Benjamin Franklin, 79-80.
  PEARCE, Roy Harvey
    Credited by Charles Sanford, 120.
  PENN, William, Governor, Pennsylvania
    And "Paxton Men" (1763), 79.
    And Benjamin Franklin, versus "Paxton Men," 81.
    Family founds Pennsylvania, 98.
  PENNSYLVANIA
    Commissioners at Lancaster treaty council, 46, 58.
    Official contacts with Shickallemy, 48.
    Benjamin Franklin as offficial printer, 56-57.
    Benjamin Franklin represents in England, 57.
    Cements alliance with Iroquois (1744), 58, 63.
    Expenses, Indian affairs, 66.
    Aids Indians attacked by French, 66.
    Benjamin Franklin represents at Albany congress, 69.
    Frontier settlement of, 79.
  PETERS, Richard
    Carlisle treaty commissioner, 67.
    Urges regulation of Indian traders, 68.
  PHILADELPHIA
    Mentioned, 70.
    Benjamin Franklin's arrival in (1723), 56.
    Description (1744), 56.
    Benjamin Franklin's civic activities in, 57.
    Benjamin Franklin establishes printing business in, 57.
    Treaty council at (1742), 59.
    Booksellers, 57.
    Meeting with Iroquois at (1775), 75.
    Continental Congress at, 76, 116.
    Described (1763), 77-78.
    Rumors of attack by"Paxton Men," 79, 80.
    Described, mid 1770s, 98.
    As "Grand Council fire" of Confederacy, 98.
  PILGRIMS
    Met by Squanto (1620), 4.
  PILANT, Richard, 17.
  PITTSBURGH, 34.
  PLOG, Fred
    Cited, 6.
  PONTIAC
    Opposes squatters, 78.
  de la POTERIE, Monsieur
    On Iroquois, 39.
  POUND, Arthur
    Cited, 11.
  POWNALL, Thomas
    Opposes confiscation of Indian land, 106.
  PRESQUE ISLE
    French fort at, 67.
  PROVINCE ISLAND, Philadelphia 
    Indian settlement at, 79.
    Rumors of attack:  "Paxton Men," 79.
  PURITANS, PURITANISM
    Benjamin Franklin's distaste for orthodoxy of, 56.
    
  QUAKERS
    Tension with Frontier settlers, 79.
    Form militia versus "Paxton Men, 81.
    In Philadelphia, 98.
    
  REAMAN, Elmore
    Cited, 17.
  REYNOLDS, Wynn R.
    Examines Iroquois oratory, 41.
  ROMAN REPUBLIC
    Liberties in, 117.
  ROMANS
    Studies by Benjamin Franklin, Jefferson, et. al., 115.
  ROSSITER, Clinton
    On Benjamin Franklin and federalism, 73.
  ROUSSEAU, Jean Jacques
    Mentioned, xiv, 14, 120.
    Ignites French imagination, 121.
    
  SANFORD, Charles
    Cited, 14, 16, 120.
    American imagined as Garden of Eden, 115.
  SAVELLE, Max
    Cited, 5.
  SAXONS, 106
  SCARROOYADY
    At Carlisle treaty council (1753), 68.
    Urges regulation of Indian trade, 68.
    Traders use of liquor:  Eaud, 68.
  SCOTCH-IRISH
    Immigration to Pennsylvania, 78.
  SENECAS
    Role in Grand Council, 24.
  SHICKALLEMY (Swatane)
    Participant in treaty councils, 48.
    Iroquois envoy to border tribes, 48.
    Personal sketch, 48.
    Death of (1749), 49.
    Friendship with Conrad Weiser, 53.
  SHORT, William
    Letter from Jefferson, 108.
  SIX NATIONS (See also:  Five Nations, Iroquois)
    Strategic position vis-à-vis English French, 42.
    Cadwallader Colden among, 44.
    At Lancaster treaty council (1744), 58, 59.
    At Carlisle treaty council (1753), 66.
    Meeting with united colonists (1775), 74.
    Thanked for advice:  Colonial union, 76.
    Benjamin Franklin and, 83.
  SMITH, W.  S.
    Letter from Jefferson, 113-114.
    Source of immigration to New World, 35.
  SPECK, Frank G.
    Cited, 11-12.
  SQUANTO
    Visits Europe, 4.
    Greets Pilgrims in New World, 4, 34.
  STAMP ACT
    Colonists rally against, 75.
    Benjamin Franklin's writings after, 96.
  STANDING ARROW (Seneca)
    And Edmund Wilson, 16, 19.
  STANDING BEAR (Lakota)
    Quoted, xi.
  SUSQUEHANAH INDIANS
    And Swedish missionary, 89-90.
  SYRACUSE, New York
    At site of Iroquoian Grand Council fire, 23.
    
  THANKSGIVING
    First feast, 4.
  THOMAS, Gov. George, Esq.
    Greets Iroquois at Lancaster treaty council (1744), 59.
    Role at treaty council, 59.
    Urges alliance with Iroquois, 59-60.
    Response to Canassatego, 62.
  TREATY COUNCILS (See also: individual councils)
    Diplomatic sign)ficance, 47.
    Proceedings widely read, 47.
    Protocol at councils, 53-54.
    As forums for Ideas, 53.
    Accounts published by Benjamin Franklin, 54.
  TURNER, Frederick Jackson
    "Frontier Hypothesis," 16.
  TURTLE (Iroquois clan), 28.
  TURTLE ISLAND
    Iroquois name for North America, 30.
  TUSCARORAS
    Join Iroquois Confederacy, 21.
    Lack voting rights in Grand Council
  TWIGHTWEES (Indians)
    Alliance with British and Iroquois, 67.
    Attacked by French (1752), 67.

  UNDERHILL, Ruth
    Cited, 15.
  UNITED NATIONS
    Declaration of rights compared to Iroquois' Great Law of 
      Peace, 17-18, 29, 123-124.
    Indian nations petition, 123.
  UNITED STATES
    Mentioned, xii, 118.
    Governmental structure compared to Iroquois', 9-10, 15, 
      17-18, 20.
    Revolutionary ideology of founders, 54.
    Federal governmental structure, 73-74.
    Born during Enlightenment, 125.
    
  VAN DOREN, Carl
    Cited, 11.
    Indian treaties printed by Benjamin Franklin, 62f.  
  VENANGO
    French fort at, 67.
  VIKINGS
    Travel to America, 3-4.
  VIRGINIA
    Commissioners at Lancaster treaty council, 46, 58, 59, 85.
    Iroquois intiuence on frontier of, 69.
  VOLTAIRE, 14.  
  de VOTO, Bernard
    Cited, 6.
    
  WAITE, Robert
    On Cadwallader Colden, 36
  WALLACE, Paul A. W.
    Iroquois Confederacy compared to United Nations, 12, 15, 
      18.
    Beginnings of Iroquois Confederacy, 22.
    Indian governments resemble Utopia, 120.  
  WAMPUM
    Belts as written communication, 28, 29.
    Political significance, 26.
    Great Law of Peace recorded on, 29.
    Used to record contracts, 29.
    Used to assist memory, 29
    Used as medium of exchange, 30.
    Fabrication of, 30.
    Diplomatic uses, 30.
  WASHINGTON, George
    Mentioned, 15.
    Collects Indian grammars, 94.
    Indian-warfare (guerilla) tactics, 117.
  WRAXALL, Peter
    Reproves William Johnson for sexual exploits, 51.        
  WEISER, Conrad        
    Mentioned, 78.
    Adopted by Iroquois, 52, 58.
    Participant in treaty councils, 47.
    Personal sketch, 52.
    And Lancaster treaty, 85.
    Supplies Benjamin Franklin with treaty accounts, 52, 
      57-58.
    Friendship with Canassatego, 52, 88, 90.
    Hosts Iroquois at Lancaster treaty council (1744), 52, 58-59.
    Friendship with Shickallemy, 53.
    Friendship with Benjamin Franklin, 58.
    Delivers Lancaster treaty council account to Benjamin 
      Franklin, 58.
    Meets Canassatego at Lancaster (1744), 58.
    Recalled by Benjamin Franklin, 88.
  WHEELOCK, Matthew, 77, 100.
  WILD POTATOES (Iroquois clan), 28.
  WILLIAM AND MARY (College), 85.
  WILLIAMSBURG, Virginia
    Site of William and Mary College, 85.
    Jefferson plans trip to (1776), 100.
  WILSON, Edmund
    Cited, 16, 19.
  WISSLER, Clark
    "Iroquois family," 45.
    
  ZOLLA, Elemire
    Cited, 18-19.


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