I'm looking for an original passage WITH the emulation! Here's the original handout(I just can't remember who posted it): Emulation Directions for an emulation as a way of studying style or form: 1. Choose a passage that is representative of the author's style. ("It sounds like this author" may be all you can say about it at this time. Choose a subject of your own that is different from the subject of the original passage. Use this subject as you begin your emulation. 2. Write out the original passage in ink, leaving 2 spaces between each line of the original. Writing directly beneath each word, replace each major word (nouns, verbs, adjectives, and adverbs) of the original passage with a word of your own that serves the same grammatical purpose. For example, replace every noun with a noun, verb with a verb, adjective with an adjective, and so on. It is best to work in pencil as there will likely be erasures. 3. There are some words that you can keep if you want to: words such as and, but, or may be kept; prepositions (words such as in, out, above, through, with) may be kept or replaced with other prepositions; and any form of the verb to be (am, is, was, were, etc.) may be used as in the original. 4. When you finish writing word-for-word of the original, keep writing for another two or three sentences. Try to maintain the same "sentence sense" as you continue writing. In this way, you are demonstrating that you have internalized original author's style in this passage. If you are doing a "style study," look at such things as these: Word choice: Does the author use common everyday words or less common, more difficult words? Sentence length: Are the sentences all about the same length? Does the author use some long sentences and some short? If so, what is the result of changing from long to short or short to long? What effect does each have? Dialogue: Does the author use dialogue in this passage? If so, what is its function--to move the plot forward, to reveal character, to show setting? Note: You can do an emulation of a fixed form in poetry, such as the sonnet, and have kids experience writing in that form before you ever give them the specs for the form. Kathy --------------------------------------------- From Fran Claggett MFCLAGGETT@aol.com Here are the directions I use (and have published) for emulating a poem or a prose passage. Choose a passage that is at the upper edge of students' reading ability. This can be used with struggling readers or AP students. Directions for Emulation 1. Replace every word of the original with a word of your own that serves the same purpose. If you are familiar with the names of the parts of speech, that means replace every noun with a noun, verb with a verb, adjective with an adjective, and so on. (For this poem, you may want to keep the first line.) 2. There are places where you can simply use the words of the original if you want to: words such as and, but, or; may be repeated; prepositions (words such as in, out, above, through, with) may be used or replaced; and any form of the verb to be (am, is, was, were, etc.) may be used as in the original. The important thing in doing an emulation, is to select a subject that is different from that of the original and keep to your own subject. It becomes tempting to look for synonyms rather than words that function the same way in the sentence. If you don't have a typed version with a large font and wide spaces, the easiest way to do an emulation is to copy the original on your own paper, in ink, leaving two spaces between each line. Write your emulation, in pencil, on the line below, keeping the words lined up. These directions might seem like a lot of work for a short experiment, but they will save you time and energy in the long run. When you finish your emulation, give it a title. Beneath the title, write, "Modeled after (title and author). Then write your name as the author of the emulation.
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