Mann's Twelfth Annual Report

Twelfth Annual Report


Horace Mann

This is his summing up after 12 years. It is considered the "great credo of public education" where he discusses the relation of church, state, and the public school in a free society.
He is an evangelist

He has wonderful images of the students:

  • raw material
  • embryos of talent
  • nursling of our schools
  • rising generation
  • lithe sapling
  • tender germ
  • analogy: schoolroom:society::infant:adult

    Mann portrays the glory of education in grand, almost heroic terms. He is speaking specifically about the 12 experiment of Common Schools.
    • it may become the most effective and benign of all forces of civilization.
    • it is universal serving generation after generation.
    • great results from a system so imperfect and an administration o feeble.
    • In teaching the blind, deaf and dumb, in kindling the latent spark of intelligence that lurks in an idiot's mind.. education has proved what it can do, by glorious experiments.
    • it will create: inventors, discoverers, artisans, scientific farmers, Presidents, Professors, Generals...

    Physical Education

    The compares health to money two ways:

  • loss to community, employer, family when someone is sick and unable.
  • not transferred like stolen money, just gone. a dead loss to the community.
    Thus it is civic duty to stay healthy. Health is within our own control, thus health of race is dependent upon health of race. God may ordain it, but we must be diligent. Each child must prescribe for himself. Schools should spread this info across the state: to popularize them. This should be practiced in all areas of public activity and in capitalists buildings. Sanitary intelligence should be dispensed from the Common School. All teachers should be versed in Human Physiology to teach.

    Intellectual Education, as a Means of Removing Poverty, and Science Abundance

  • The state should be sure to provide the good life: the well- being of its people.
  • In Eur men are born into classes; in Mass all men are equal.
  • Dividends earned in state should go to benefit people.
  • Only Universal education can separate us from Eur and class struggle. Let the profits of the capitalists p[ass down to the people. SOCIALISM??
  • Since the prosperity of the state has been attributed to education then why not give back?
  • Education then, beyond all other devices of human origins, is the great equalizer of the condition of men.
  • Education prevents both the revenge and the madness.
  • For the creation of wealth intelligence is the condition.
  • Success in a political economy is to change a consumer into a producer.

    Political Education

  • republican govt:without intelligence::mad-house:without superintendent.
  • Intelligence should be commensurate with the nature of the duties.
  • With intelligence, elective legislators will never far surpass their electors.
  • It is easy to make a republic, harder to make republicans.
  • To understand citizenship the Constitution of US and Mass should be studied in school: social studies.
  • Since there are different readings of the Constitution that is why we should teach it.
  • Would politics in the schools be catastrophic?? To avoid this should we banish political discourse or allow the angry ones to speak? Find a middle course. This is part of the process of teaching. Present the text without prejudice and let the kids decide.

    Moral Education

  • Morality is crucial and a homicidal and suicidal man results in a community without conscience.
  • Evil triumphed over Good; Wrong follows Right;
  • more complex = more temptations
  • Look to the history of Man to see: all of the -cides, fraud, aggression, war, slavery. Man panders, govt enact laws, rel has tried, yet education has yet to be brought in to teach morals.

    Religious Education

  • This is more a personal section than anything else. Everyone knows his views.
  • grave charges that we have excluded religion.
  • Free schools opposed and parochial schools pushed.
  • Wishes to vindicate self.
  • Look to history: govt which tried to control the religion fell. We are a nation, the first with freedom of opinion. Public and common are names attached to these schools. Many religions, which one?
  • political educ are not given to make the child vote one way or another and so religion should not be taught. This is personal choice. WE TEACH TO ENABLE HIM TO JUDGE HIMSELF.
  • The Bible is in our schools by common consent. If the Bible is the book which dispenses Christian beliefs how can it be said the schools are anti-Christian?
  • We ask our teachers to exact a certain thing, not explicitly called Christianity, but which follows the tents of Christianity.
  • For a govt to coerce and predetermine the religious opinions of children is sacrilege.
  • If a govt is recognized to protect the rights of religion, how can it force one on its young citizens?
  • Keep the free schools free.

    An excerpt
    Another excerpt