Schwager's Educating Women in America
Educating Women in America
1974 Jill Conay warns: the trend to coed in coll/univ in past
decade was filled with dangers for women students, scholars, and
graduates. coed schools had not met women's intellectual needs
nor fostered equity.
Pat Albjerg Graham says women have trad been linked to
ed reform for women was one of most dramatic and complex
developments of the 19th C.
lots of research on higher ed; dearth on dame schools, female
academies, seminaries; and scant on k-12
who controlled women's ed? Who headed the schools? male or
With the influx of more female teachers, their authority
seemed to decline???
Women weren't citizens (no vote) but they were responsible
for the educ of their sons. Being a republican Mom.
Quakers very concerned with female ed
ed for women grounded in domestic responsibilities. this was
the paradox for educ women diff from men.
However the expansion and concern for women ed is unique to
1780 literacy based on signature, was 1/2 that of men's.
stagnated for 18th C.
1850 women could R&W = to men.
literacy served as key to modern world: "no social change in
the early Rep affected women more emphat than improvement of
female cult reliant on spoken word, male on written word.
The Academy experience
Academies: after Rev; major advance in W ed; put into
practice rep rhetoric of ed for W; provided new job ops; a new
cohort of women leaders.
egalitarian rhetoric of rev provided vocab for W ed.
Young Ladies Academy opened 1787. W taught same subj from
same books as boys. the rationale to teaching writing skills was
for social status while math was to help husband with books.
There was a limited conception of women.
The academy nurtured ambitions and skills, a new social role,
Girls learned to compete and to be judged and learned to desire
rewards, practiced by emulation. This fostered qualities
founders never expected: indep, ambition, pub leadership.
success scared pop by 1830 as unfit for females, because it
encouraged boldness, vanity and selfishness at the expense of
humility, devotion to duty.
academy experience was a central paradox in W ed. Idea to
instill values of domesticity and subservience instead provided
skills and the desire to advance and even radical changes.
E Willard is at the center of ed advances for women in the
Important source of feminism and an incubator of a new style
of female personality.
EW was a woman of her times rooted in social conventions, but
she was a woman of the future. Troy was subversive in that it
paid attention to the intellectual development of women.
The changing state of womens' self-perceptions.
It was by training them as teachers that this dissemination
Troy stud were quite diff from rest of pop
EW had emphasis on training teachers, org alumni network,
curricular was loaded with innovations.
EW's reforms were broadcast nationwide.
EW's curriculum was far more innovative in pedagogy, in fact
most of the innovations in ed were in W sch because they were
free to experiment.
Many of leading texts in boys sch written by Women.
Women and the History of Teaching
Women teachers outnumber male.
1834-1860 Male goes down
1834-1860 Female teachers goes up 56.35 to 77.8%
However, never did employment go above 2% of white women 15-
60 as teacher.
2 things of import on teaching experience (Bernard &
- teaching was a temporary job
- vertical mobility minimal
- never allowed to supervise male teachers
- assigned to younger children
- 40% salary of male.
- "self respect must have been a difficult ideal."
- Geraldine Joncich Clifford: studied diaries, journals,
letters, autobiographies to find:
- escape from even-more confining homes and neighborhoods.
- typical common school teacher is young and ill-prepared.
- growing self-respect, autonomy, and assertiveness
- took them to schools far from home.
- unprecedented independence and intellectual satisfaction
- pleasure in student's success
- sense of competence
- satisfaction in earning a salary
- public lives as teachers propelled them to seek larger
audiences as abolitionists, suffragists, or temperance workers.
- evidence of political activism.
- schools served as training ground for suffrage movement.
- organizational structure of teaching.
- new friendships
- collegial support
- sentiments of sisterhood
- developed networks
- assisted one another
- this is utterly missing from males
- teaching made a significant contribution to 19thC feminism.
Women's life-cycle patterns
- teaching occupation provides new element in the life cycle of
- teaching extended that period between education and
- Mary Lyon's Mount Holyoke Female seminary
- making the female cycles more complex by adding options of
remaining single and self-supporting.
- they sought higher ed for vocational reasons.
- were required to contribute to family economy.
- economic problems forced them to go to school every other
year so they could work.
- to rush through at an accelerated pace to save
The migration of teachers from New England
- a religious commitment drove them to fields of teaching or
- Single women could not do missionary work so they turned to
- Teaching in the west provided great opportunities.
- Marriage furthermore allowed husaband and wife to work
Black Women Teachers
- profound discrimination in terms of race, religion, social
class, and ethnicity, as well as gender.
- blacks moved into pro at a different pace.
- 1910, census shows black women 2/3 of nation's black
- race and sex double whamy for black women.
- 1890 BAs: 30 BW; 300 BM; 2500 WF
- BW confined to elem and hs
- BM get vote in 1870, 14th Amend.
- BM adopted MCP attitude.
- BW considered segragated sch gave them opportunity.
Integration in 1950's put them out of a job.
Urbanization and feminization