involvement in change is personal and organization and system 
has a variety and is impacted by many outside sources
tensions: big small rich poor ....
what do you want to change to and for??
without purpose or goal change ain't going to happen.
learning is a social process.
purpose: indiv shaped by life.
share element of what is powerful learning from incident in life.

The day I decided to be a teacher, a math teacher, I almost died. 
The summer after 10 grade and I had geometry, I was working as a
carpenter.  Cutting wood for the roof.  Connection between class
and life, relevency.

hurt be teachers
parents, family, children important in epiphanies
handicapped Matthew, inclusion
persistence in coal work
limiting on labelling, perspective of self
discipline in a kind way
thinking, reflecting, hands on education
learned from children, volunteer, values
self teaching, neg about school.
create meaning and impower kids
expectation, equity
help to learn, a joy, attacking it correctly
construct meaning, teamwork, 
shared experiences, common goal, learners in control
allow students who want the challenge to go
principles, stand your ground, do what is right damn the
consequences, trust self, 
believe in self, psyched out, 

themes from falk:
what real learning is about, understanding, epiphanies
learning by doing, 
power of a model: parent, teacher
take charge of own learning in face of adversity
support from teacher parent
positive and negative influences causing action
trust and respect
diversity and differences society places it on us in spite of
commonness and equity.
societies values resonated through stories
overcoming adversities

100 years of school reform

1890 begin of public school John Dewey  human development,
     learning by doing, early childhood centers which becam Bank
1920 Efficiency movement: IQ's a shift, beginning of standardized
     testing, era where science and the rigot of sci approach
     were develong and could provide answers, Thorndike was a
     prominant in this area, Thorndike replaces dewey.
          IQ = Binet began it for the purpose of detemining spec
          ed kind of kid.  When it came to US it lost its real
          purpose. Turmin found women were outscoring men so test
          was redesignd. Same as culture biased tests like SAT. 
          Tests are redesigned to acomplish desired outcoms.
1930 The Progressive Era:  reflowering of Deweyism, not
     associated with political Progressives.  Meant the
     progressive movement of the kid, in the face of depression
     and Jane Addams to settlement houses and sociaism of time. 
     Appeared more in private schools. 
1940 8 year study: led by Ralph Tyler at U of Chicago.  Created a
     curiculum document frame: What ed purposes should schools,
     what learning exp relate to ed, how organized, how
     evaluated.  Lesson Plans, filter down effect. What if not
     top down but went bottom up, waivers etc. They did this and
     tracked them for 8 years. In the end the kids in the
     experimental class did better than none. 
1950 Teacher proof curricula: move from period of experimentation
     to teacher proof era.  Sputnik craze who was better?  New
     Math, Mass classes, programmed readers, recipe lessons,
     canned classes, no diviation. Teacher couldn't screw up. 
     Top down approach.
1960 Equity, relevance: resurgance of human rights, countries
     involvement in wars, war of poverty, great society, head
     start, optimism - romantic
1970 Great society, Title I, Back to Basics: open educ, reflected
     Deweyian ideas, learner centered, baby boom? shift back to
     technical approach. intuitive.
1980 Reform Report
     1st Wave: Mandates for excellence: 1983,Nation at Risk,
     improve schooling via mandates, required curricula, hollow
     with lots of technical/mandated approach.
     2nd Wave: Professionize teaching decentralize decision-
     making: Holmes group, SBM/SDM, 
     Field of cognitive sciences have come to fore, Piaget
     resurgence, Brunner, 
1990 search for democracy: excellence and equity: standards,
     Governor's Association 6 goals, plus teacher ed and parent
     involvement, headed by Gov Clinton, Whipple, Edison
     Projects, Goals 2000

Scale changes things.
Competing Views of Educational Change
Models: Chapter 1 to Title 1

Technical                                       Capacity-Building
Qualification                                   Community buildig
Mandats                                         On-going learning
Factory Model                           Recognition of complexity
Behavioral theories                 Equity/opportunities to learn
Raise expectations/accountability         Constructivist theories
                                             develop the teachers

problems in how it is implemented.  teaching is response oriented
import knowledge                          practice informs policy


context for change:
The culture has to be examined: 

Culture of a place (education)
     people to people relations.
     what participants bring with them

Perspectives of the insiders:
     lack of support
     tension between theory/practice
          issues of: rigor

Institution as whole 
     reorg of depts
     public perception

Participants perception
     expectation and reality
     learn to manage with adversity
     reversal of roles
     organiz structure

what are the different feelings change evokes in you?
Conflicting Feelings in response to change:

fear, anxiety, frustration, anger, insecurity, doubt, falure,
     stautus ambiguity, exploitation, disappointment,
     manipulation, unprofessional, discomfort, humiliation, 
excellence, opportunity, hope, challenges,  exploration,
     anticipation, engagement, challenge, fulfillment,

What would help one to deal with the feelings in the global

"Obstacles are what you see when you take your eyes off the
Integrity - vision balance - guide change process
Purpose- Clarity of purpose/vision / org framework - lesson plan

     open dialogue which leads to action and reflection
     direct access

adaptative structure - self-corrective, conflict
     resolution/avoidance, problem-solving mechanisms, 

Knowledge base

Evaluate and assess the program. 

"Don't blame, reframe."

     To develop and support a challenging, learning community in
an environment which encourages collaboration a sharing of
knowledge and expertise.  
     Effective teaching and educational leadership will be
modeled while providing opportunity for practice, reflection, and

responsive  curiculum
guidance counselor, advisor, mentor
mining the expertise of studnet
support group

     orientation, on-going advisement, coordinator of process,
          social director, conflict-resolution

     success how it met its goals, evaluate cohort after program,
          looking at benchmarks, assessment of pedagogical
          styles, history, marriage of practice and theory,
          student feedback, technology, environment.  


Theory X =  
     pop are naturally not realiable,                   directive
     free,                                             monitoring
     do their own thing,                              controlling
     passive,                                            explicit
     resistant to change, 

Theory Y =
     instrinsically motivated              collaborative could be
     trustworthy                                   laissaez-faire
     self-directd                                       hands-off

Theory Z =
     products of culture/                           colleagueship
     environment we create                 shared decision-making

X = beaucratic
Y = Loose Coupling
Z = Shared decision-making

sarason take perspectives.  Make errors if you don't consider all

Programatic Regularities:

Inside school:

Bell schedule
grade levels
Carnegie Units: distinguish credits for class
Linear Curriculum
High stakes testing
sports program 
length of school day/year
sequence of courses
teacher professional issues
class ranking GPA
classroom environments
shape/size, location of schools

School Bds inside or outside?

influence from outside:

students themselves
life circumstances
world of work/business
changing demographics

Context matters.
Schools of choice.

Quality of teacher educ

Current issue - 

Identify Prog reg you want to change
how would outside 
consequence, behavior, itended, unintended because of difeerent

Construction of the school:tech bring nodes, shape and form
dictates relationships/divisions, codes, 

consider history of 
complexity of change, time, and the work of change


Fullen's stages, worried about public law on sch sys,
Public-Law 94-142 : least restrictive environment, 

Where does change come from?
external                       or                        internal
                     BOTH: research, Unions

courts/govt                          teachers respond to st needs
parents                                      respond to own needs
universities                                           adm forces
business                                                 students
sco econ                                              world event
pub advocacy

Kurt Lewin's  Force Field Aanlysis:

Driving Forces                                Constraining Forces
these push                                         these restrict


Bd of Trustes                                 sch culture/mission
Parents                                                scheduling
belief in value of                                       research
good for kid                                     professional dev
economics                                                   costs
Marketing: sch/ETS                          competing initiatives
National Mood/trend                                              
Press report Cards                                               

His conception of the process are acting on a process is a frozen
     one: is affectd by driving and constraining forces. 
     Unfreeze and create change then frozen again.

Small windows opportunities to get some ground.
Tug of war
default mode

paradigm shifters
Scouts, Pioneers, Settlers

     <==Referential ==>
Initiating          Implementation      Continuation   Outcome
size/scope          pop converse
people              mechanics
culture/            research others
context             how to's
(driv force)        planning
readiness           style of leader
resources             challenge
relevance             empower
shared vision/      bal
meaning               push/pull
communications/       pressure/support
structures/support  eval/redesign/
                      be flexible

     <==Referential ==>
size/scope          pop converse        institutionalize/
people              mechanics           1st order change
culture/            research others     2nd order change
context             how to's              embedded
(driv force)        planning            roles should be clear
readiness           style of leader     sustain interest
resources             challenge         doing what said
relevance             empower           monitoring/adjusting/
shared vision/      bal                    restructuring
meaning               push/pull         keep inquiry alive
communications/       pressure/support  empowering participants
structures/support  eval/redesign/      ongoing capacity building
                      be flexible       Balance pressure/support


Learning process for adults

descriptive review of child  : developed process at looking at
kids in classroom so kids would be more productive by changing
staff methods of teaching.  Child not unit which always has to
change.  Not Labor intensive.  See lit in NCREST office. 
Provides useful data for newcomers. 
when change occurs: outsider must do hw, who is the leader? 
In every stage you come up against resistance.  What to do?
Number of strategies: Lewin not to emphasize driving forces but
deal with minimizing constraining forces  (frozen to unfreezing)

Choose your battles and where pub/priv

listen to reformer, write down ideas, restate what they said so
we both understand each other, then answer.  

Fullen calls it the science of muddling through

     lack of capacity
     pace of change
          paralysis of analysis
          one step forward two steps backward
     think hypertextually not linearly
     lack of perceived need
     image: pr
     communication: recognizing diversity, 

Effective Change Strategies:
(making te obvious explicit)

RAND: EFFECTIVE: how project was implemented and how staff
     acepted it determined success/failure rather than amt $;
     having community undersand goals; sch org climate &
     leadership was supportive (leadership helped create climate)
     focus on isue, theory/practice; change more difficult on sec
     level than on elem level; people are critical (change is not
     about the person but is about people); sustained development
     in context; building leadership from within and using
     knowledge from within;  cumulative study; This is reflective
     of capacity Building.
     INEFFECTIVE: One shot training sessions; outside experts;
     targeted programs; This is reflective of technical approach
     to change.

Shaped G2000, which shows how research effects good policy


keep a log or journal which accounts for what you do i a day and
review it to see how it reflects your goals.

Worked in groups on project

read education: the movie  movie.html

what makes good leader:
     focus on kids
     moral compass
     creating shared community vision
open to different perspectives
hear and understand
ability to identify, locate voices, not loudest
being a manager
sense of humor
create trust - positive climate Roland Barth _Creating a
     Community_ - volunteerism, collegiality
creates a structure that is not dependent on the leader via
     delegation, it will continue after leader leaves.
Permeability - new know, perspectives, ideas
Know not-negotiative
Know self - your own health - family - spirit
mental and phy energy - sharpening the saw.
model and takes risks - leader as servant
consider alternatives - end run, problems as opportunities
know your limitations
knowing how learners learn
interpersonal skills
organizational skills: external, budgets, politics, demographics,
     laws, socital norms, supervision, everyone has outside
be ready for reactions, opposition etc...


Persons assumptions about leadership:
about learning:
about how to make change:

Joe Clarke:
Persons assumptions about leadership: one way, my way; not a big
     believer in shared vision; dictatorial; autocratic;
     messiahic; moral authority; 
about learning: requires order, control; safety; social skills; 
about how to make change: quick fix; not self-sustaining; top-

Deborah Meier:
Persons assumptions about leadership: vision for learning; 
about learning: integrated learners, community of learners;
     performance assessment; intellectual themes; created a
     thinking environment; 
about how to make change: concensus; theory "Z"; created
     culture/community; empowered others; 


by self cannot make things change, but it can be a guide; policy
is an axe not a scalpal; can't legislate policy; better
preventing than
reflects voice at local level; top down support for bottomup
look at local level closely at successes and build large scale
support to support those local success

creating policy which give room for local innovations and
implementing local needs.

Hyperrationalism : policy is not rational nor linear; policies
are conceptualized and then others are added, already there,
layered or woven or contradictory.

Teaching profession is only one regulated by govt.  It is so
     public.  Which makes it hard for profession to regulate self
     with so much fed and state money.

Sources of Policy:
1. govt:
Laws get made and then tested and any of the 3 branches can seem
to come down.  Standards start top.

2. profession: new teacher prep (INTASC: Interstate New Teacher
     and Support Consortium); NBPTS (National Board of
     Professional Teachers Standards); NCATE (National Council of
     Assessment Teacher Evaluation); 
The profession is looking to see how it can care for itself, and
not have the govt do it.

3. market: school choice (whatever the market will bear);
     vouchers, charters, public, private; business (STW);

Sch is mandatory yet there is no cohesive set of policies taht
give us guidance in fulfilling the mandate and certainly not
similar in each state.

Professional Development
Teacher Education

Who:  addressing; teaches/attends; will control; 
Where: the level of action; settings; 
What: gets taught; are the resources; 
When: time frame, level; 

fit into economy, citizens part and protecting
main thing is the teacher; center of change; 
preparing kids for future;
reward teachers, we don't trust them, 

New Models:
Professional develpment: preparedness, interns, stud teachers;
Tech is a tool: chalk and blackboard
Support new teachers: Mentor program; 

Rewards for Merit: teachers need support 

Pro Dev: