10/17/97
analysis an org prob using all sources due when we come back.
clinical act as org consultant
     implement a problem and solve it.

org behavior????
how they relate to relate to each other
how they function
power
formal and informal

Why?
group behavior is different
to avoid problems
solve problems
relate to org effectivenss
     meeting goals + obj
to make change effectively
more creative

no single solution to the problems in org

ideal working situation:
stable leadership
opportunity for creativity
clarity of purpose and goals
colleaguiality
participation in decision making
     these can be involved in making a perfect org

non-ideal org:
indecisive
abuse and disrespect
devisive over goals, objectives, and methodology
back stabbing
lack of integrity
complacency
bias, racism

Where does org behav come from
new research phenomenon

1a. prior to 1880's
family -run
churches
farms
nature of work assumptions of people authority structure
prior to 1880's craft focused, individual class patriarchical
industrialization factory model, specialized by task workers are disposal wealth achieved, not ascribed
post industrial 1960 more multi tasking, upskilling capable, value their work global economy, systems
1990's anytime anywhere high skilled intelligent lateral teams global

globalization:
skill gap
diversity
instabilty and uncertainty
evolving technology


psychology:
1930's motivation to influence behavior
behavior researc


org design as solution:
jr high to middle school to high school
factory moddel to cluster academies
trad to block schdule, house, magnet
top down to SBM/SDM

all orgs have structure
look at it how work is done, no care for people, focuses on goals
and objectivs, purpose is to optimize so goal is achieved. bias
towards specializayion, coordinates  laterally and veryically,
solutions from rstructuring or developing new systems

what determines actual shape of org
size
core tech (how you do it is the core tech)
     materials
          curriculum
     systems
          instructional strategies
     processes


information tech

environment

1. core elements, basic design elements
size, age, rules, hierarchy, policies, observations/evaluations,
order, common language, goal, curriculum, informal, 
     nature of the task, how the task, divide and coordinate
     work, decision-making, clarify throgh rules, reduce
     uncertainty, behavior in org, output, boundaries around what
     we will do, 
2. how work is divided and coordinated
houses, internal boundries
3. common structural dilemmas
admin wants lateral for direction 
staff wants vertical tell me 
     be able to see it as problem
4. thru out, compare and contrast your orgs designs

9/18/97
UNPACK THIS

Case 9:
overcentralized to more defuse
unclear boundries: policies & procedures
vertical communications
lateral communications: no communications with other principals
new to culture ask questions.

Case 12:
No mechanism for discussing issues.
     faculty, personal discussion
     role, ombudsman
excessive autonomy/too tight
lack of clarity on policies
laissez-faire from district, too loose
teacher went outside chain of command


Human Resources Frame
how they can capitalize human resources to be effective
from indiv perspective
how pop can better serve org
org & pop need each other
pop not disposal
needs of workers
motivation

how you see them play out in your own orgs both pos & neg:
I like the mediator
maslow 
     hierarchy basics needs
herzberg 130
     motivates pop, hygiene factors.
     Take away anxiety of basic needs doesn't necesarily make
     them satisfied. to get to job satisfaction.  rewards, job
     satisfaction.  Argyris and X&Y factors.

X&Y:
pages 105-111
X pop are lazy = self fulfilling
soft theory = window dressing?
concrete, follow
Y control & input over the job
abstract, think, team, 
performance, better ideas

strategies
train and educate
teams

who determines needs? and how is met?
core technology
needs are not met, how you serve the customer


Case #8:
What are the human resource issus?
What are the human resource solutions?

Theory X, Y
inconsisent, not modelling
Theory X trying to do Theory Y
he decided the problem and solution.
did not engage them in defining and problem solving

DO:
model
start focus on problem


1:30
group dynamics at end of section 
STRUCTURE:
clear goals                       choice
communication networks 
clear roles, structure, accountablity
decision making process
differentiation, role 
size ==> task
expertise ==> task
coordination 
lateral/vertical 
accountabilty + product
assessment/evaluation
Task: what are you doing?

GROUP to accomplish a task

HUMAN RESOURCES:
Process: group maintenance and interpersonel dynamics
appreciate diversity, value differences Myers Briggs
how they operate
rules for participation
informal: norms, values
acknowledge needs of participants.
deal with conflict
individual commitment
brain strorming: don't judge, accept all ideas.
leader? not necessarily, but it is everyone's responsiblity to do
     the task.

Groups have to start out with ground rules: accountabilty,
behavior. 

POLITICAL FRAME:
Power: influence/knowledge, authority:given/earned;
     hiring/firing; coersive; agenda; personal power;
power: provides strategy and tactics 

Politics: many blood sucking ticks set agendas,
     negotiating/bargaining, networking and building coalitions.

Coalitions: many coalitions making one org; pol structure;
     informal/formal; temporary combining of influence; ad hoc;
     standing committee; 
Agenda setting: piece of paper? prime the group, what gets
     addressed, 
Conflict: 

positive politics: perceived; pp 187-188 NB

Different sources of power:
Conflict inevitable: strategies and tactics; stimulate
     creativity;
conflict and discomfort leads to negotiation; conflict at points
     of intersection.

Authority                           v                                 Power
-----------------------------------------------------------------
                                                                constituent
positional                                            influence/affiliation
                                                                information
                                                         control of rewards
                                                                   coercive
                                                          personal/charisma
                                              controlling meaning & symbols


Case #20:
lacks support from assistants
media = equated in-school suspension = condoning drug use
no power base - positional, small group, respect of asst super, 
SOLUTIONS:
if you want to fix this:
another symbol; in house battles, discipline strategies, find out
     who is with you, horse trade with APs, PTA, Police, BOE, use
     naivenes/political savviness, 


conflict: allocation of scarce resources
central to dynmaics of frame.

SYMBOLIC:
B&D:
meaning from what is has to acomplish: faculty meetings the event
     means more than what happens. 
high levels of ambiguities so symbols used to create certainty. 
handbook is a symbol; painting the walls; 

SCHEIN:
displayed by orgs

idea of org having culture new
it is manipulative
Hawthorne effect: more responsive to researchers and less to
     improvements.
what does org culture mean?
     system of "shared values"
     & "beliefs" that intersect with
     an organization, "people", "structures", 
     and "control systems"
     to produce "behavioral norms".

control sys= rules etc
behv norms = what is expected to be done.
shared values = what we think is important
beliefs = what we think is true

the challenge is to understand how these all work together, esp
if you want to get to change.

certain things held by groups:
behavioral regularities
     language
     customs & traditions
group norms
espoused values
formal philosophy
rules of the game
habits of thinking
shared meaning
integrating symbols


Organization is accumulated shared learning of group

basic assumptions and espoused values shape culture.

espoused values (p 2)

time (p 6)

when can you see the org best?  when it is new, during change. 
=================================================================
John G
org is school distrist three schools 1600 students
135 teachers 3 prin 1 asst

3 assumptions

1.  parents are sending us the best kid they have not keeping the
good ones home. Our job is to teach regardless of background

2. another assumption it is easy to to complain  takes no skill
to complain, but it does take skill to find solution do not give
me problem bring solution too

3. problems not mine they are everyones
so eveyone must play a role to help solve problems.

meet with hs personnel and show them Regents results, how
compares to other schools; complement on past now lets move on to
be better, other schools show better master, complement and then
challange so more mastery

elem pep tests

he will provide solutions.
So how do we fix this, show me a plan. It has become a culture,
you are part of the solution. Agenda is presented and is non
negotiable to show resluts, then asks for their ideas to improve
in three weeks.  Bring plan to which they respond. Since it is
theirs then they will implement, delegating responsiblity you are
satisfying Maslow's basic needs.  Five years ago, the problem was
fewer taking exams, now we are improved on that, now we have to
get them to do better.


You are modeling by bringing a solution if they ned it.  If they
find a solution, then so be it. Implement it, otherwise I'd be
complaining.  How accomplished doesn't matter, as long as problem
is solved.

How many other people's solutions have been implemented?  75% of
the solutions are theirs.  I'm not the smartest one in here,
there is a lot of brain power in here.

==============================================================

artifacts

espoused values
basic underlying assumptions

10/19/97

Integration of four frames
how you use multiple frames
in Cases # 8, 17, 20

S = Structure 
H = Human Resources
P = Politics
Y = Symbolism

#8

sec Lora Mipps: information, ritual, bookends for. All four.

school system is small

professor Hollman: H, P

vote: 

letter: thesis, manifesto, 

problem: 5-6 pages
analysis: 4-5 pages

clinical: 25 pages

Why use multiple frames:
more holistic perspective (increase effectiveness)
     needs to use different frames for diif problems
     appealing to different "audiences"
organizational orientations

short cuts:
HR =  commitment and motivation
P = technical quality of decisions tensions around limited
     resources
Y = issues of ambiguity and uncertainty
S = scarces resources

#8:

Structure = ad hoc committee. to lok more broadly
sanction Ernie, ad hoc

HR = training: SBM (himself, pricipals); model fo rdiff
leadership approaches, ad hoc

Pol = positive pol; horsetrading; gather forces (close alliances,
more distance)

Symbolic: language, vision, exploit prin stability to advantage,

FINAL:
What is change?
where does it come from?

tend to speak of it in abstract
what is change?
     adding on/ taking away
     restructuring
     policy guidelines

how does change come about?

     intentionally 
          intend it to occur
          natural diffusion: put it out and hope it is done
               block sch think about and do
               whole language
               Takes fifteen years for 3% to implement via nd
          power coercive
               laws, mandates, force change, give out money to do
               something, this can cause conflict
          normative re-educative
               org self-renewal
               rethinking goals and objectives

     unintentionally
          unplanned
               new people
          evolution
          adaptation

Changes causes:

uncertainty
ambiguity
turbulence
conflict as you realign, bring in new, 

Change and its process
FULLAN:
nature of the change
     quality of change, soundness, feasibility which has us look
          as structural issues, deepness, values
     objective and subjective value

3 phases:

initiation: 
     mobilization of pop
          readiness for change
               capacity of staff to adopt innovation
          past successes
     nature
          quality of change
          conflicts
     environmental factors
          when
          resources
implementation:
     steps to put into place
          1st run through
     the whole process of putting things in practice
     related to various frames
          vision building
               top down
               bottom up
               unifies all arounf commonness
          evolutionary planning
               front load
               schedule
               review process, assess it, evaluate it
          initiative taking & empowerment
               climate to take risks so we learn from success and
                    failure
          staff development and resource assistance
               on-going
          monitoring and problem-solving
          restructuring
               requires space, pop, resources/finance
               all change requires restructuring
continuation:
     institutionalization
     fostering renewal
     monitoring
     how do you guarantee this
          news letter
          aniversaries
          rituals

SCHEIN:  Organizational renewal

dynamics of change 298 - 303
     unfreezing
          need
          serious discomfort/disequalibrium (moving toward
               excellence) 
          
     cognitive restructuring
          role models
          core elements of the org
     refreezing
          reinforcing, institutionalizing

core elements for a leader  primary & secondary ch 12
     what do they pay attention to
     role modeling & coaching
     resource allocation
          sends messages what you support
     select, promote, hire, fire