analysis an org prob using all sources due when we come back.
clinical act as org consultant
implement a problem and solve it.
how they relate to relate to each other
how they function
formal and informal
group behavior is different
to avoid problems
relate to org effectivenss
meeting goals + obj
to make change effectively
no single solution to the problems in org
ideal working situation:
opportunity for creativity
clarity of purpose and goals
participation in decision making
these can be involved in making a perfect org
abuse and disrespect
devisive over goals, objectives, and methodology
lack of integrity
Where does org behav come from
new research phenomenon
1a. prior to 1880's
instabilty and uncertainty
1930's motivation to influence behavior
org design as solution:
jr high to middle school to high school
factory moddel to cluster academies
trad to block schdule, house, magnet
top down to SBM/SDM
all orgs have structure
look at it how work is done, no care for people, focuses on goals
and objectivs, purpose is to optimize so goal is achieved. bias
towards specializayion, coordinates laterally and veryically,
solutions from rstructuring or developing new systems
what determines actual shape of org
core tech (how you do it is the core tech)
1. core elements, basic design elements
size, age, rules, hierarchy, policies, observations/evaluations,
order, common language, goal, curriculum, informal,
nature of the task, how the task, divide and coordinate
work, decision-making, clarify throgh rules, reduce
uncertainty, behavior in org, output, boundaries around what
we will do,
2. how work is divided and coordinated
houses, internal boundries
3. common structural dilemmas
admin wants lateral for direction
staff wants vertical tell me
be able to see it as problem
4. thru out, compare and contrast your orgs designs
overcentralized to more defuse
unclear boundries: policies & procedures
lateral communications: no communications with other principals
new to culture ask questions.
No mechanism for discussing issues.
faculty, personal discussion
excessive autonomy/too tight
lack of clarity on policies
laissez-faire from district, too loose
teacher went outside chain of command
Human Resources Frame
how they can capitalize human resources to be effective
from indiv perspective
how pop can better serve org
org & pop need each other
pop not disposal
needs of workers
how you see them play out in your own orgs both pos & neg:
I like the mediator
hierarchy basics needs
motivates pop, hygiene factors.
Take away anxiety of basic needs doesn't necesarily make
them satisfied. to get to job satisfaction. rewards, job
satisfaction. Argyris and X&Y factors.
X pop are lazy = self fulfilling
soft theory = window dressing?
Y control & input over the job
abstract, think, team,
performance, better ideas
train and educate
who determines needs? and how is met?
needs are not met, how you serve the customer
What are the human resource issus?
What are the human resource solutions?
Theory X, Y
inconsisent, not modelling
Theory X trying to do Theory Y
he decided the problem and solution.
did not engage them in defining and problem solving
start focus on problem
group dynamics at end of section
clear goals choice
clear roles, structure, accountablity
decision making process
size ==> task
expertise ==> task
accountabilty + product
Task: what are you doing?
GROUP to accomplish a task
Process: group maintenance and interpersonel dynamics
appreciate diversity, value differences Myers Briggs
how they operate
rules for participation
informal: norms, values
acknowledge needs of participants.
deal with conflict
brain strorming: don't judge, accept all ideas.
leader? not necessarily, but it is everyone's responsiblity to do
Groups have to start out with ground rules: accountabilty,
Power: influence/knowledge, authority:given/earned;
hiring/firing; coersive; agenda; personal power;
power: provides strategy and tactics
Politics: many blood sucking ticks set agendas,
negotiating/bargaining, networking and building coalitions.
Coalitions: many coalitions making one org; pol structure;
informal/formal; temporary combining of influence; ad hoc;
Agenda setting: piece of paper? prime the group, what gets
positive politics: perceived; pp 187-188 NB
Different sources of power:
Conflict inevitable: strategies and tactics; stimulate
conflict and discomfort leads to negotiation; conflict at points
Authority v Power
control of rewards
controlling meaning & symbols
lacks support from assistants
media = equated in-school suspension = condoning drug use
no power base - positional, small group, respect of asst super,
if you want to fix this:
another symbol; in house battles, discipline strategies, find out
who is with you, horse trade with APs, PTA, Police, BOE, use
conflict: allocation of scarce resources
central to dynmaics of frame.
meaning from what is has to acomplish: faculty meetings the event
means more than what happens.
high levels of ambiguities so symbols used to create certainty.
handbook is a symbol; painting the walls;
displayed by orgs
idea of org having culture new
it is manipulative
Hawthorne effect: more responsive to researchers and less to
what does org culture mean?
system of "shared values"
& "beliefs" that intersect with
an organization, "people", "structures",
and "control systems"
to produce "behavioral norms".
control sys= rules etc
behv norms = what is expected to be done.
shared values = what we think is important
beliefs = what we think is true
the challenge is to understand how these all work together, esp
if you want to get to change.
certain things held by groups:
customs & traditions
rules of the game
habits of thinking
Organization is accumulated shared learning of group
basic assumptions and espoused values shape culture.
espoused values (p 2)
time (p 6)
when can you see the org best? when it is new, during change.
org is school distrist three schools 1600 students
135 teachers 3 prin 1 asst
1. parents are sending us the best kid they have not keeping the
good ones home. Our job is to teach regardless of background
2. another assumption it is easy to to complain takes no skill
to complain, but it does take skill to find solution do not give
me problem bring solution too
3. problems not mine they are everyones
so eveyone must play a role to help solve problems.
meet with hs personnel and show them Regents results, how
compares to other schools; complement on past now lets move on to
be better, other schools show better master, complement and then
challange so more mastery
elem pep tests
he will provide solutions.
So how do we fix this, show me a plan. It has become a culture,
you are part of the solution. Agenda is presented and is non
negotiable to show resluts, then asks for their ideas to improve
in three weeks. Bring plan to which they respond. Since it is
theirs then they will implement, delegating responsiblity you are
satisfying Maslow's basic needs. Five years ago, the problem was
fewer taking exams, now we are improved on that, now we have to
get them to do better.
You are modeling by bringing a solution if they ned it. If they
find a solution, then so be it. Implement it, otherwise I'd be
complaining. How accomplished doesn't matter, as long as problem
How many other people's solutions have been implemented? 75% of
the solutions are theirs. I'm not the smartest one in here,
there is a lot of brain power in here.
basic underlying assumptions
Integration of four frames
how you use multiple frames
in Cases # 8, 17, 20
S = Structure
H = Human Resources
P = Politics
Y = Symbolism
sec Lora Mipps: information, ritual, bookends for. All four.
school system is small
professor Hollman: H, P
letter: thesis, manifesto,
problem: 5-6 pages
analysis: 4-5 pages
clinical: 25 pages
Why use multiple frames:
more holistic perspective (increase effectiveness)
needs to use different frames for diif problems
appealing to different "audiences"
HR = commitment and motivation
P = technical quality of decisions tensions around limited
Y = issues of ambiguity and uncertainty
S = scarces resources
Structure = ad hoc committee. to lok more broadly
sanction Ernie, ad hoc
HR = training: SBM (himself, pricipals); model fo rdiff
leadership approaches, ad hoc
Pol = positive pol; horsetrading; gather forces (close alliances,
Symbolic: language, vision, exploit prin stability to advantage,
What is change?
where does it come from?
tend to speak of it in abstract
what is change?
adding on/ taking away
how does change come about?
intend it to occur
natural diffusion: put it out and hope it is done
block sch think about and do
Takes fifteen years for 3% to implement via nd
laws, mandates, force change, give out money to do
something, this can cause conflict
rethinking goals and objectives
conflict as you realign, bring in new,
Change and its process
nature of the change
quality of change, soundness, feasibility which has us look
as structural issues, deepness, values
objective and subjective value
mobilization of pop
readiness for change
capacity of staff to adopt innovation
quality of change
steps to put into place
1st run through
the whole process of putting things in practice
related to various frames
unifies all arounf commonness
review process, assess it, evaluate it
initiative taking & empowerment
climate to take risks so we learn from success and
staff development and resource assistance
monitoring and problem-solving
requires space, pop, resources/finance
all change requires restructuring
how do you guarantee this
SCHEIN: Organizational renewal
dynamics of change 298 - 303
serious discomfort/disequalibrium (moving toward
core elements of the org
core elements for a leader primary & secondary ch 12
what do they pay attention to
role modeling & coaching
sends messages what you support
select, promote, hire, fire