Table 1.1



Four-Frame Model

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Structural Human Resources Political Symbolic
Metaphor for Organization Factory or machine Family Jungle Carnival, temple, theater
Central Concepts Rules, roles, goals, policies, technology, environment needs, skills, relationships Power, conflict, competition, organizational politics Culture, meaning, metaphor, ritula, ceremony, stories, heroes
Image of Leadership Social architecture Empowerment Advocacy Inspiration
Basic Leadership Challenge Attune structure to task, technology, environment Align org and human needs Develop an agenda and power base Create faith, beauty, meaning

Source: Bolman and Deal; Reframing Organizations; 1997;
Table 1.1, page 15
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