Organizational Frames

Four Interpretations

of

Organizational Processes

Process Structural Human Resources Political Symbolic
Strategic Planning Strategies to set objectives and coordinate resources Gathering to promote participation Arenas to air conflicts and realign power Ritual to signal responsibility, produce symbols, negotiate meanings
Decision Making Rational sequence to produce right decision Open process to produce commitment Opportunity to gain or exercise power Ritual to confirm values and provide opportunities for bonding
Reorganizing Realign roles and responsibilities to fit tasks and environment Maintain balance between human needs and formal roles Redistribute power and form new coalitions Maintain image of accountability and responsiveness; negotiate new social order
Process Structural Human Resources Political Symbolic
Evaluating Way to distribute rewards or penalties and control performance Process for helping individuals grow and improve Opportunity to exercise power Occasion to play roles in shared ritual
Approaching conflict Maintain organizational goals by having authorities resolve conflict Develop relationships by having individuals confront conflict Develop power by bargaining, forcing, or manipulating others to win Develop shared values and use conflict to negotiate meaning
Goal Setting Keep organization headed in right direction Keep people involved and communication open Provide opportunity for individuals and groups to make interests known Develop symbols and shared values
Process Structural Human Resources Political Symbolic
Communication Transmit facts and information Exchange information, needs, and feelings Influence or manipulate others Tell Stories
Meetings Formal occasions for making decisions Informal occasions for involvement, sharing feelings Competitive occasions to win points Sacred occasions to celebrate and transform the culture
Motivation Economic incentives Growth and self-actualization Coercion, manipulation, and seduction Symbols and celebration
Process Structural Human Resources Political Symbolic


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