7/7/97 Historical study: From Puritans to the present a broad sweep of 300 yrs purpose of ed? schooling in us inclusion and exclusion? these from 1636 @ Harvard. Who to attend? Rich or poor? Why? In NYC 1996 consider all girls school. Inclusion and exclusion. History as a discipline. Why is it important? a live discipline. very much living Michael Katz, says no golden age of education. History changes because who writes it. Perspective: how might your situation be recorded? who tells story: prin, ap, teacher, parent, kid, press. In 50 years how would it be told. Who gets heard? last word. history is fragmented, gaps, lost work. objectivity, get as many perspectives as possible to make decision. Maintain a healthy bit of skepticism break for exercise: a quote then a second quote. both from 1880's Failure of public schooling about poor children, class not just racial. inclusion and exclusion, should poor kids be educated. codes: should anglo be given to others. There is always going to be a group left out, someone at the bottom. Education was not about having an educated electorate. What do we expect from our schools today? The list: Where did it come from? This list could be made in any time frame. Family-Spiritual-School miracles: one stop of services (Wal-Mart of services) basic skills literacy: decode-common lang-cult context-to read-write- understand-communication skills-numeracy-technology) collaborative workers (ability to compromise access info problem solve thinking skills feed babysitting/daycare moral grounding (prosocial behavior-getting along-respect-ontime) conflict resolution arts phys ed environment ed community service accountability job prep health safety Use play to prepare for life. So who would you hire to do all of this? Syllabus handed out. COFFEE BREAK The Cry of Sodom is dense but important. What documents exist? Not many in colonial period. Colonial Period 17th and 18th Century. 1620-1782 New purpose of education. 1803 when Jefferson wrote his article we see idea of educated electorate. Separation of church and state. Interesting since the school system began with this idea. Regional discontented Puritans to Holland and then to America. Left Holland because the kids started learning Dutch and intermarrying. Puritanism was being diluted. 1620 got Va Company to come to Jamestown. Off course and ended up in Plymouth, then got Mass Bay Colony. 1630 second wave of Anglicans and formed Congregationalists. The church set it all up. Mass Puritans pure and pious folks. School on hill for all to emulate. Puritans are an intolerant lot. Anne Hutchinson and Roger Williams. Anne no need for clergy to interpret for community. Both Anne and Roger went to RI. Reading will concentrate on Puritan concept of reading scriptures. Reading Bible was moral and spiritual necessity. Puritans have highly intelligent. Literacy was measured by who could write their name on church register. Only men were literate since only men could read. Education does not mean schooling. The job of the parents was to educate the kids. 1681-1791 How did women get recorded? wills, land.. How can you work and educate at the same time? friends, church, primary task was survival and the constant work would cause the breakdown of family. TODAY? Colonies got from King in 1642 to get money to educate kids. Select kids to see if the could read scripture and knew laws, if they had no skills then they were apprenticed MODELLING if education poor they were fined. Poor would slothful. If you didn't teach to read they were taken from you. This was the beginning of compulsory education. It was the parent's job to educate kids. All kids born ignorant and prone to sin. kids 6- 18 boys and girls alike. Downside was exploitation of poor because selectman could take kids and apprentice them so the haves gain from the have nots. It as the selectman's call. Also way to maintain the Puritan lifestyle. Adopted by all colonies except RI. Puritan educate kids. 1647 Mass general court made provisions for educ policy. Deluder law Satan was the deluder. Class issue, why should I pay for someone else's kid. This is called charity schooling. RI +++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++ 7/8/97 Barns round so Satan couldn't hide. Dame schools because hard to find Latin teachers. Babysitting was a primary function. No quality control or curriculum for Dame schools. So basic literary skills might not be taught. First of daycare. Problem is pop is going and can't handle pop. Discussion of schoolroom. Students had to provide firewood. Sorta like a scholarship. Schoolmasters, not teachers but masters of kids. Colleges prepared for ministry, law, not educ. Teachers revealed for disciplinarian: quick with rod, hand, loud of voice. Curriculum was reading and writing. Handout 7/8/01 handout learning alphabet had a moral message, too. Boys enter at age 7: read, write and Latin. Greek and Hebrew, too. Boston Latin first grammar school in 16 Tie between rel and educ very strong. Ministers the most educ in society. Piety is conected with material success. You are pious because you are wealthy, which was your grade. Class ranking. this is Puritan work ethic. Girls educ. Where? They too had to be saved. Intellectual pursuits too trenuous but chores no problem. In off times women taught girls. Pay was lower, not college educated and they were women. Women will evolve in late 17th Cent. Indians and Blacks educ. No records in 1600's. Very little opportunity. Christianizing them was the mission. Harvard had a house for Indians. DARTMOUTH?? CORNELL?? Slavery did exist in North and could get freedom after awhile. Easier to have an indentured servant rather than a slave. North not condusive to slavery. 1783 Mass abolished slavery. Purpose to read was to read scriptures. Trained for life of service and hence would be better servants. 1827 first black grad of college, Bowdain, 200 yrs after brought here. In South, against law for slaves to read and write. Georgia started as a penal colony. Different climate from NE or England. Considered a punishment. Maryland settled by Catholics. NE was egalatarian while South was aristocratic. Pyramid. ocia need in NE not so in South. Educ was a private matter not a public matter. Wealthy hired tutors. Sent their sons abroad to England to learn. Pop dispersement was immense, one crop:cotton. I NE socialunit was town, in south it was family so no gathering of community. No large urban centers: Charleston. Women were not encouraged to learn since it would scare away the men. An English hierachy of wealth, of class. Two extremes in North and south. More emphasis in educ, wealth. In south wealthy want to keep it. In 1600's South is 200 yrs behind in having public schools. Mid-Atlantic: faced problem of heterogenaity. In NY 18 diff lang. All educ systems are different and this is really see in this region. School committees begin to emerge as they replace town metings. Schools become centralized. Then my kids won't be in a school with "those" kids. A voucher system of sorts. Colonial college . All colleges had religious except King's College which became Columbia. 1638 Harvard Congregationalist then exlanded. 1693 Wm and Mary Epis 1701 Yale Congregational to combat liberal Ivy League was begun as an intercolliate sports league.
page 5 more concerned with the personality, civility. Many similarities see page 4: "Look into families...." This look of children has not changed. page 7 bottom last two questions. Heterogeneous was diff rel which meant not as pious. top of 10, more than outsmarting Satan: citizenship. _Wayward Puritans_ Ki Ericson Pedagogy p 14 fear of not being prepared, unifying them while they had to survive. Whose morals? values? It is obvious. Schools not effective 1655-1700's. Fr-Ind war, Br used taxes to pay for fights. Rev war also compromises educ. What is the expectation of schooling? Is it babysitting? What family can't do. Transferance of values. Schools to let kids discover themselves, a practice field, learn how to learn. ====================================================== 7/9/97 purpose to ideal to what it will be ; party line then .. teachers are pop who failed at other jobs?? Am Rev to 19th Cent. change because states felt sep until the rev and changed the whole country and education. during 1781 most states have a constitution. Jefferson: an inescapable idea that society couldn't function without intelligence. = everyone should be educated to have a viable democracy. or if no education couldn't vote. preach against ignorance in book called Crusade Against Ignorance. pop and land doubles in Jefferson's tenure. Importing of slaves outlawed in 1808. Urban growth increasd, 1810 NYC largest city. Urbanization increasing 1812 second war of indep. Education taking back seat to all these growing pains. Am Rev, pop, land, 1812 education becomes crucial to understand republic, what it meant to be free. Things change for women after the Rev. 1787 Rush says women should be the stewards and guardians of society so they must instruct their sons, teach English, know accounting to help husband, geo, hist, to teach sons. 1820-60 Cult of womanhood: piety, purity, submisiveness, domesticity. Find a pious woman and all else will follow. Keep her in her religious sphere. Rule of thumb: if a mark larger than a thumb printappeared on a woman she was beaten. Feminization of teaching at this time. economics and no man wanted to do it so they say women are more attuned to teaching. econ indep, rel zeal, intellectual curiosity, women may have ben exploited but they were out of house, econ indep, intell free. Educ was a giant step for women. Emma Willard: women responsible for educ as mothers to maintain rep, Teaching most popular in North, not in South. women who were too smart, scared men. pp38-39 in Kaestle re exclusion, inclusion p 33 and 39 muting culture, social control, reducing crime and vice and muting cultural diferences. Do the schools that Kaestle describes a manifestation of Jefferson's ideas. Jefferson's idea is to have public not private and Kaestle is speaking of Charity schools. today's public schools evolve from common schools not charity schools. 7/14/97 common school week where did they come from/ what was their purpose? Mann's 12th Report spells it out. 1830-60 antebelllum Andrew Jackson sets it down for common man. immigration at this time sets tone for common school xenophobia begins No-Nothing Party no foreigners esp german and irish these were Catholics. it was a religious thing. consider henry viii influx of catholics threatened puritan pop. numbers are actually low and nany went west anyway. crops is an issue: south need slave labor for cotton and tobacco; northwest (midwest) also agrarian does not need intensive labor; northeast is manufacturing and urban satisfies this. reformers come out of closet and everywhere. "I'd turn that school all around, I'd put the door on the other side of the building." 1830-1840 known as the reform era In economic booms things get better: The arts Cooper, Whitman, Melville and Emerson, Thoreau. What we really need is a simple life. Popular is the communal living. Utopias: Bloom community; New Harmony (Owens); Oneida a group of perfectionists; Shakers; Mormons burned out of each community until Utah; live in harmony with each other. temperance movement; these were taken on by women, they could temper the evil of man. In west women were key because they are a calming effect esp with kids. revivals aided the temperance movement similar to Hiner who speaks of puritans fear of kids and for kids. Maintain Puritan ideas because of increase in complexity and temptations. feminism and the rights of women: You don't know when your getting it until history comes along. Women teachers couldn't date, had many rules unlike the male teachers. Yes they had indep, but they still a long way to go. As women gain confidence some names Dorthea Dix, Emma Hart Willard, Eliz Caty Stanton, Wyoming only state that women could vote 1840's, Antoinette Blackwood friends with Stone at Oberlin which was first college to admit women (coed) the 1833 Ohio. That women could learn with men was horrendous idea. Ober was training ministers and teachers for the nation preparing for the dying death. Since they were doing this it seemed logical to pair them up for this. They also admitted first black students in 1834. Abolishonists and reformers at school. A very progressive school. Sexism wasn't divided by color. With black freedom abolishionists left women's group which caused great rifts. Heretofore both groups were one. Women were turned turned away from abolitionist meetings in London; 1% were abolitionists; Met in Seneca Falls and created group and wrote up their own revolution. Colonization: sending freed blacks back to Africa: Liberia. 1) didn't want them 2) to return them home. Problem they were born here, they were Americans, They weren't African anymore. France today. Still need labor even after Civil War. South believed this so strongly. South found this idea horrible. Marcus Garvey later on (20th cent) held this idea, but he was black. Ending slavery and sending them back. real problem was who was going to pay for this. The economics it always comes down to the money which killed this idea. Wm Lloyd Garrison brought about the idea of abolition. Total to end slavery, don't end them anywhere. The Liberator was his paper "I will be heard." Fred Douglass was important to but more on him later. Underground railroad: Harriet Tubman a mythical person, no turning back if with her, even in north not acceptable so had to hide. Manifest destiny plays a role. War with Mexico begins idea "might makes right." grace of god, manifest destiny. more about economics and power than education. Regionalism is taking over. In older communities esp New England education was hot topic. Kaestle p 100 literacy rate in US 94% of pop in North 84% in white south. 1830 before common school starts. The comon school ws to be common to all pop, not a school for the common man. heterogen on religion and not race. Common purpose, a public philosophy, nation can't be ignorant and free, idea is Mann's idea. Public ed began in Mass. Fear foreign monarchies and NY had better schools was the motivating force for publically funded schools in Mass. Always inferior when we compare self to others. Mass feels important. Gov asks Mann to head BOE in Mass. as sec of education. Horace Mann at Brown U: law or ministry. @12 he broke from Calvinist tradition, he didn't have the belief. The role of BOE "enlightenment"; profesionalizes teachers; makes 6 month school year; brought curriculum; Why should citizens pay txes to support schools if they didn't have any or sent them elsewhere. Common school was not Charity school. THIS IS MAJOR POINT. Doubtfuk that Mann's plan could be successful. What is the common American culture? Document assessment: of 12th report. Warm-up: What is wanted for common schools? Who is it for? What do we learn about Mann? About No model before, why each element included, audience and context of time. OUR PIECE: Is divided into 3 sections: 1) he presents the problem, evils, the -cides, vices, etc. That naturally man is homicidal then suicidal so he needs controls. 2) he speaks of how man has tried to assign morality on mankind. He suggests that there have been many experiments and obviously none have worked. 3) However in the third section he suggests the one experiment yet to be tested: education. He says: "Train up a child in the way he should go, and when he is old he wil not depart from it." Education has never been brought in to solve this problem. He wishes to concentrate on the child and he has wonderful images of the students: the raw material embryos of talent nursling of our schools rising generation lithe sapling tender germ analogy: schoolroom:society::infant:adult This is leading to his big finale on the subject of Religion. Purpose: influence politicans and policy makers, and enlightened public, [showing off, self-aggrandizement,] need for moral center, instill self control not govt control, give strong foundation, prevention not prison, Presentation style: You are all sinners a la J Edwards: he is a good speechifier from his own religious background and training, and following Assumption: morality can be taught and child can learn it, schools are the best place to teach it, and then transferable to society, he is the model, Audience: policy makers and politicians, What are we learning: new law, new transition, other educators, is this public? would parents have seen this? newspapers? They were published. Who is the author and what is relation to subj: sec of ed, creator Position taken: another piece of commonness for the nation. ++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++ 7/15/97 no model for public ed in Amer, there was the old deluder law, and perhaps the Eur model which is class based which makes it different. Mann's idea is that all should have ed. The whole idea was about adequacy not excellence. No it is being reinterpretated into excellence. Are we getting caught up in excellence and accuracy. creating workers and leaders. he is setting standards. heterogenity Howard Gardner's multiple intelligences section 1) What is the great equalizer? Use the doc to support the point. section 2) section 3) coming from puritan aspect that child is born ignorant and sinful. section 4) Bibles are teaching tools, why he spending so much time on this. He is justifying his work and decision on this matter of religion. giving exposure and quality to make choice (p 104). swan song, farewell and he just wants to leave with the last word on the most controversial aspect of his tenure. para 1 and conclusion 110. this is his child. all things to all people. Who is going to pay for ed? Who is going to attend? to convince to pay and to attend. what do you see now that were in this document? school funding, double taxing, priv prayer in school morality: spec pops: spec ed, community concept, Moral: prevention not prisons total child: impractical, too expensive, would not benefit masses, breakdown est barriers, breakdown cath schools, would compromise, fear of nonEnglish would sumplant (ger, gaelic) nonchild no tax, defend liberty but not educ, no state could support, state ed then state church, ed is for the leisure then ppor. ed prevents crime, stess, wrong ideas, clas diff, priv and church sch inadaqu, mixed sch impossible, char against soc and an ofense to poor who feel stigmatized, sufferage, for immmig is menace so simlation best in sch, free an gen ed is the natural right of all, the benefits are worth it, what the state wishes to teach, You are asking pop to pay for sch, and they succeeded. problems may have been inherent in the design from Mann's piece. cynical but real One of the groups, Catholics opposed public schools. Appealed to Eur for teachers. Wanted to show culture was able to participate. Jews did not setup separate schools after seeing the treatment of Catholic schools. weekend schools, Indian boarding schools, Carlisle, which is now the war college. Primary document assessment: ++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++ 7/16/97 selected to show one perspective. doing it for God teach them not to say "I can't," Unlearn them vices of slavery - lying Douglass: written in 1849, did he write it or an abolitionist to add fuel to the fire of abolitionism. this is written in 1845 as common schools are beginning. first published in Garrison's Liberator. Not specific enough. Where did he get his education. written for: self, future, needs a past to leverage the present, fredman, he is a teacher, bad for blacks but whites, too, makes them lazy. Why ruin your own race too. How did he get so educated. he is good ex that blacks can be educated. In north public schools have many prot sects. 184-50's coed or single sex? later. feminization of teacher. 1899 92% teachers were women. Another contradiction. male as prin teacher and women assists. Men move into management. women salsries 44% less. if women taught what did it say of men. In midwest, farmers against it because the kids learn and leave. Location of school? all taxed? idea of educ for salvation. school brought respectability, In ten years 50 men went west while 600 women went west. women wanting indep. had to be converts, had to prove piety. social control: teaching American values. Parents are unfit guardians for children. How does this hold with Puritanism. school as factory. making educ more efficient. Lancaster system. not for literacy, but social control. Use children to Americanize parents. Philbrick sch is to impose tasks if he likes it great, if not tough. Harris in 1871 from St L to standardize, order is first, stud must conform, be an empty vessel, trained for factory, not thinking, grade school came about by accident. the school was called an egg crate. a dozen hence 12 grades. each class had 56 kids grades sorted by size not ability. prin male teacher and asst women teachers The South reconstruction blacks outnumber whites, educ helps reunite families sep by slavery, here is a new idea: knowledge is power with the educ of blacks, 7 mil blacks free instantly, and then the whites devastated from War: not properly considered . 13th frees them, 14th citizenship, 15th balck men can vote;; before white women??? split between abolitionist and suffragettes. 1865 Freedman's Bureau formed to help blacks and give aid to south as whole. fed troops in south a sort of marshall plan. south is not agrarian, fields razed. Attitudes of north to south. schoolls were segregatd blacks were getting better educ than whites; 1870 4000 sch; 9000 teachers 1/2 black; 200,000 students; Many of freedman teachers (see Noble Work Done Earnestly) 1880's large anti-blacks in north; northern teachers coming to urban areas while rural areas had to form self, public, equal but separate; educ tied to religion. Wilbur Force in Ohio an all black pop. ++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++ Courts: plesy v ferguson 1868 separate but equal Brown v BOE 1954 ++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++ public sch more condusive in north and not south. Private schools. Southern white men primary member of public school +++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++ 7/21/97 Second paper, _The Influence of Emma Hart Willlard_ handed in. NB to remember status of W in 19th C. Lots end at end of 19th C and begin of 20th C Schwager good! opening Para. same argument used for single sex sch in earlier C. WAITE asks: is hist cyclical? or does everything stay the same and progress is very very slow. I THINK: spiral = hybrid of the two. OTHERS: revisit it since it isn't resolved. issues same, environment changes. Escherian-like with so many possibilities. idea of as our sch cecome more diverse, what is it we are trying to do? spec ed, meals, high schools in existing schools, purpose of high school undecided, larger enrollment of females than males, idea was not that hs would masculinize them instead it would feminize men, androgeny??? Ed Clarke from HaRVARD 1873, he claimed W would damage repro organs if they studied too hard, rep motherhood argument association goes back to cyclical concept of hist. single sex v coed. hist context of W in higher ed after Civil War. by mid 19th C pop accepted coed sit 1870 4700 W in colleges 1890 39500 W # of reasons: ability of W to attend popularity of teaching as career coed of male colleges state felt preassure from tax payers downfall for separate colleges was economic, to maintain two colleges crazy Univ of Rochester told women to collect a collective dowery of $100,000 in 1870. even though W had access didn't mean they had equal education. they were not part of the sch If got a PhD they still did not have access to higher end jobs. Dean of W like dorm mother, phy ed teach, health related... Educ would make W better mothers. Mt H was the model. 1900 all seven sisters founded. Wellesley taught by women 1870's Durants were childless. Mt H idea of creating educated women. Need to give back to society. Least active was Radcliffe. waiting for Harvard to go coed which happened in 1969. Considered Harvard annex. Barnard 1889 set mold for Radcliffe. What happened to these W grads: 1920, not attractive, Might there be inherently good developmental qualities to an all boy school? networking, power struggle, no there aren't any pedagogical reasons, Why do we have single sex sch. W had to fight for ed so it seems obvious. To counter maleness. +++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++ 7/22/97 progressive era idea of progress moving forward, many things happening at this time. See dewey web large immigrant movement pop doubles in 40 years. how does this change and effect educ sch places of social control? now with so many new imm and freedmen how does this happen women's movement, imm, and wealth. CLASSES vert integration, asembly line, new indust rev, motorization, corps, philanthropic idea Carnegie Gospel of wealth which advises how wealthy to advance social causes. Carnegie gave to libraries, in his essays calls upon milliionaire to give it to the poor before he dies, salvation. poor in money rich in admiration of man. because he kived one part of the wrld is a little bit better. However, during his life he was ruthless. Puritan notion cruel in life now find way into heaven. One could rise to wealth from nothing, mythic proportions. Horatio Alger. rags to riches. we want producive society, but a few controlled wealth. Business has a big effect on society and educ. Schools wanted to follow idea of corporation. Professional management in educ begins. tracking via IQ begins. voc and industrial sch evolve. IQs separate wheat from chaff. Industrialists were giving money to train workers. JPMorgan gave lots to creat industrial sch since they were not doing what business needed. Since society has changed, industrial rev, so much sch. going after hand minded, the worker. _Learning to Labor_ stud trained to work in factory and not to go to college. Since they weren't succeeding in sch fgor coll why not train for work. How would Jefferson or other early 19th C educ have thought about this idea of specialized sch? prepared for work not for the mind; wouldn't have dealt with these folks; sense of egalitarianism; trains pop to be better citizens; consider the 1/10 idea: only 1/10 will rise to the top. schools want to follow the model of business. the other transformation is the growth of the hs. More opportunity for kids to stay in sch because families were making more money, so one or two could stay in sch without taking from family funds. This is for second or third generation imm as they became setled. Not for new imm. hs pics show them having fun, a leisure class is evolving. Colleges were moving from acad to social networking, athletics begins to rise. W could not handle hs so W were in elem sch. 1890 1901 Marg Haley compares teachers to laborors. Union? How does Dewey's idea fit into this? Dewey: began as philosopher, interest in educ how we find knowledge acquire it; 1890 head of phil, psych, and pedagogy or dept of ed, school of ed. 1904 came to TC practical ed, child centered pedagogy, transforming society training practically educated children then you could transform society thereby eliminating society's ills. Dewey p34 experiential education, child centered, child understanding, should be models of democracy and for democ. How can this work in a sch in 1910? In common lang: new imm who teaches them. They had to laugh at them. Can't be done in a large system with grades, large classes... He is in conflict with success of training for business, schools run like business is contrary to Dewey. His ideas are radical. Dewey more Jeffersonian, but too radical. Dewey comes from his time: socialism, Marx, Descartes, and comes up against the status quo of the time. a man in the wrong time. Value of educ in America as a whole. Business dev leisure class, so why not fix if it ain't broke. legalized slavery is the model and then Dewey comes along with a democracy thing. In context of his time: is it about adequacy or excellence. To BT Washington & DuBois: Lynching reaches high, race riots, 1896 Plessy v Ferguson, these 2 blacks are lightening rods of controversy Which of these two is more like Dewey? BTWash was born a slave. attended a free school taught by a Northern black went to Hampton and then founded Tuskegee with help of whites philanthropists _Up From Slavery_ DuBois from a Northern free family grew up in New Bedford went to Fisk in Tenn a black sch, because he could afford and could get into. 1st black to get PhD from Harvard. 1903 _Souls of Black Folks_ in which he criticizes BTWash. Taught at Tuskegee. Both had same goal to educ blacks. In BTWash peice read between the lines. Highest number of lynchings, not time to do black power thing. DuBois's knows from elitism. He was one of the 1/10th, he was separate from his own race. how does this fit between Dewey and DuBois? How does friction between BTWash and DuBois Dewey and factory model? How much of these things are we still living with? Now the next and last paper: Don't editorialize. ++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++ 7/23/97 BTWash-DuBois Tusk/Hamp founded by North philanthropists. Expos aud whites and educ blacks b-d competing for same aud Trottier ed of Boston Guardian criticizes BTW Niagara movement 1904 aggressively demands equal rites in educ, NAACP evolves, can only be one way pop can be educated, this caused split between BTW and DuB, who controls sch: pop or govt. Who decides appropriate educ for a pop? progressive era reforming something that is already there. trying to rework Mann's idea. Mann was creating now we are reforming. Once you have graded schools, supers, you then reform. Compulsory schooling law, Filbrick's graded school, until 16, 1870's Teacher's Unions silk purse out of sow's ear; new wine in old bottles. no spec ed, biling, should we have ed for imm (ques of mental capacity, how one race rises from one level to another by immitation or teaching, can a race progress, higher not dominant society, WA Thomas 1912 referring to both im and blacks) Fass doc p1 sch 4 social control p28-29 Henry Moskowitz pigment of skin = degree of intell a thought still young country a bit worried about stability. Pop had shifted quickly so a worry exists, minor as it was. How to respect culture of imm child p 31 But... theory was respecting culture. what are schools for: saddled with social ideas which couldn't be done in other parts, reform is glue p32-3 responsibilities of sch getting bigger and bigger in the model of 19thC sch in 1847. The role the sch is supposed to fill. now has role church used to fill? sch are hierarchy because it works in business. consider some of the seeds planted then and in effect today. Impractical to say we are going to change the whole thing. Have to rebuild etc around existing, fixing the removing bike. Jacob Riis: How the Other Half Lives, Raze it, rebuild it. played to audience to help control imm, plays to TRoos then chief of police in NYC. pics tell a lot while text is offensive. 1890 Democracy takes on American values and seems contradictory. Diff from Dewey idea of democ ed. 1920s: social context, 1st 20 yrs of C. power of big business, small group controls a great deal, sherman anti trust act 1902, tries to level the playing field; anti monopolies to limit corps; WWI German immin MWest suffered great patriotism, German curricula removed, increased idea of nationalism, brief depression then boom after WWI, another boom in advertising no rules or regulates, Infomercials are not reglatd. W suffrage movement: women could bring more to America esp after WWI, they would have tempered the violence, getting vote 19th A 1920 would calm men and bring morality. Harlem Ren, expatriots in Fr, rebirth of KKK in response to for and cath bringing nationalism. Imm drying up jobs so fear and nativism. How are imm kids going to feel in sch. Tension between rel and sci Scopes. darwin affected this change in 1880s. sci called natural philosophy. hitting it again in 1920s. tenn: John Scopes teaches evolution. Jennings v Darrow. evolution v creationism. 1880-1910 majority of activity of Progressive era with obvious seepage Social rev roaring 20s, ++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++