Historical study:
From Puritans to the present
a broad sweep of 300 yrs
purpose of ed? schooling in us
inclusion and exclusion?
these from 1636 @ Harvard.  Who to attend?  Rich or poor? Why?
In NYC 1996 consider all girls school.
Inclusion and exclusion.
History as a discipline.  Why is it important?
a live discipline.  very much living
Michael Katz, says no golden age of education.
History changes because who writes it.
Perspective: how might your situation be recorded?  who tells
story: prin, ap, teacher, parent, kid, press. In 50 years how
would it be told.  Who gets heard? last word.
history is fragmented, gaps, lost work.
objectivity, get as many perspectives as possible to make
Maintain a healthy bit of skepticism
break for exercise: a quote then a second quote.
both from 1880's
Failure of public schooling
about poor children, class not just racial. 
inclusion and exclusion, should poor kids be educated.
codes: should anglo be given to others.
There is always going to be a group left out, someone at the
Education was not about having an educated electorate.
What do we expect from our schools today?
The list:  Where did it come from?  This list could be made in
any time frame.
miracles: one stop of services  (Wal-Mart of services)
basic skills 
     literacy: decode-common lang-cult context-to read-write-
     understand-communication skills-numeracy-technology)
collaborative workers (ability to compromise
access info
problem solve
thinking skills
moral grounding (prosocial behavior-getting along-respect-ontime)
     conflict resolution
phys ed
environment ed
community service
job prep
Use play to prepare for life.
So who would you hire to do all of this?
Syllabus handed out.
The Cry of Sodom is dense but important.
What documents exist? Not many in colonial period. 
Colonial Period 17th and 18th Century.
New purpose of education.
1803 when Jefferson wrote his article we see idea of educated
Separation of church and state.  Interesting since the school
system began with this idea.  Regional
discontented Puritans to  Holland and then to America.  Left
Holland because the kids started learning Dutch and
intermarrying.  Puritanism was being diluted.  1620 got Va
Company to come to Jamestown.  Off course and ended up in
Plymouth, then  got Mass Bay Colony.  1630 second wave of
Anglicans and formed Congregationalists.  The church set it all
up. Mass Puritans pure and pious folks.  School on hill for all
to emulate.  Puritans are an intolerant lot.  Anne Hutchinson and
Roger Williams.
Anne no need for clergy to interpret for community.  Both Anne
and Roger went to RI.  Reading will concentrate on Puritan
concept of reading scriptures.  Reading Bible was moral and
spiritual necessity.  
Puritans have highly intelligent.  Literacy was measured by who
could write their name on church register.  Only men were
literate since only men could read.  Education does not mean
schooling.  The job of the parents was to educate the kids. 
1681-1791 How did women get recorded? wills, land..
How can you work and educate at the same time?  friends, church, 
primary task was survival and the constant work would cause the
breakdown of family.  TODAY?
Colonies got from King in 1642 to get money to educate kids. 
Select kids to see if the could read scripture and knew laws, if
they had no skills then they were apprenticed MODELLING if
education poor they were fined.  Poor would slothful.  If you
didn't teach to read they were taken from you.  This was the
beginning  of compulsory education.  It was the parent's job to
educate kids.   All kids born ignorant and prone to sin.  kids 6-
18 boys and girls alike.  Downside was exploitation of poor
because selectman could take kids and apprentice them so the
haves gain from the have nots.  It as the selectman's call.  Also
way to maintain the Puritan lifestyle.  Adopted by all colonies
except RI.  Puritan educate kids.
1647 Mass general court made provisions for educ policy.
Deluder law  Satan was the deluder.
Class issue, why should I pay for someone else's  kid.  This is
called charity schooling.


Barns round so Satan couldn't hide.
Dame schools because hard to find Latin teachers.
Babysitting was a primary function.  No quality control or
curriculum for Dame schools.  So basic literary skills might not
be taught.  First of daycare.  Problem is pop is going and  can't
handle pop.  Discussion of schoolroom.  Students had to provide
firewood.  Sorta like a scholarship.

Schoolmasters, not teachers but masters of kids.  Colleges
prepared for ministry, law, not educ.  Teachers revealed for
disciplinarian: quick with rod, hand, loud of voice.  Curriculum
was reading and writing.

Handout 7/8/01 handout learning alphabet had a moral message,

Boys enter at age 7: read, write and Latin.  Greek and Hebrew,
Boston Latin first grammar school in 16
Tie between rel and educ very strong.  Ministers the most educ in
Piety is conected with material success.  You are pious because
you are wealthy, which was your grade.  Class ranking.  this is
Puritan work ethic.
Girls educ.  Where? They too had to be saved.  Intellectual
pursuits too trenuous but chores no problem.  In off times women
taught girls.  Pay was lower, not college educated and they were
women.  Women will evolve in late 17th Cent.  

Indians and Blacks educ.  No records in 1600's.  Very little
opportunity. Christianizing them was the mission.  Harvard had a
house for Indians. DARTMOUTH?? CORNELL?? 

Slavery did exist in North and could get freedom after awhile. 
Easier to have an indentured servant rather than a slave.  North
not condusive to slavery.  1783 Mass abolished slavery.  Purpose
to read was to read scriptures.  Trained for life of service and
hence would be better servants. 1827 first black grad of college,
Bowdain, 200 yrs after brought here.

In South, against law for slaves to read and write. Georgia
started as a penal colony.  Different climate from NE or England. 
Considered a punishment.  Maryland settled by Catholics.  NE was
egalatarian while South was aristocratic. Pyramid.  ocia need in
NE not so in South.  Educ was a private matter not a public
matter.  Wealthy hired tutors.  Sent their sons abroad to England
to learn.  Pop dispersement was immense, one crop:cotton.  I NE
socialunit was town, in south it was family so no gathering of
community.  No large urban centers: Charleston.  Women were not
encouraged to learn since it would scare away the men.  An
English hierachy of wealth, of class.  

Two extremes in North and south.  More emphasis in educ, wealth. 
In south wealthy want to keep it.  In 1600's South is 200 yrs
behind in having public schools.

Mid-Atlantic: faced problem of heterogenaity.  In NY 18 diff
lang.  All educ systems are different and this is really see in
this region.  School committees begin to emerge as they replace
town metings.  Schools become centralized.  Then my kids won't be
in a school with "those" kids.  A voucher system of sorts.

Colonial college .  All colleges had religious except King's
College which became Columbia.
1638 Harvard Congregationalist then exlanded.
1693 Wm and Mary  Epis
1701 Yale Congregational to combat liberal

Ivy League was begun as an intercolliate sports league.

Hiner's art

page 5 more concerned with the personality, civility.  Many
similarities see page 4: "Look into families...."  This look of
children has not changed.  page 7 bottom last two questions. 
Heterogeneous was diff rel which meant not as pious. top of 10,
more than outsmarting Satan: citizenship.  

_Wayward Puritans_ Ki Ericson

Pedagogy p 14 fear of not being prepared, unifying them while
they had to survive.  Whose morals? values?  It is obvious. 
Schools not effective 1655-1700's.  Fr-Ind war, Br used taxes to
pay for fights.  Rev war also compromises educ.

What is the expectation of schooling?  Is it babysitting?  What
family can't do.  Transferance of values.  Schools to let kids
discover themselves, a practice field, learn how to learn.

purpose to ideal to what it will be ; party line then ..
teachers are pop who failed at other jobs??

Am Rev to 19th Cent.
change because states felt sep until the rev and changed the
whole country and education.  during 1781 most states have a
Jefferson: an inescapable idea that society couldn't function
without intelligence.  = everyone should be educated to have a
viable democracy.  or if no education couldn't vote.
preach against ignorance in book called Crusade Against

pop and land doubles in Jefferson's tenure.
Importing of slaves outlawed in 1808.
Urban growth increasd, 1810 NYC largest city.  Urbanization
1812 second war of indep.
Education taking back seat to all these growing pains.
Am Rev, pop, land, 1812
education becomes crucial to understand republic, what it meant
to be free.
Things change for women after the Rev.
1787 Rush says women should be the stewards and guardians of
society so they must instruct their sons, teach English, know
accounting to help husband, geo, hist, to teach sons.
1820-60 Cult of womanhood: piety, purity, submisiveness,
domesticity. Find a pious woman and all else will follow.  Keep
her in her religious sphere. 
Rule of thumb: if a mark larger than a thumb printappeared on a
woman she was beaten.
Feminization of teaching at this time.
economics and no man wanted to do it so they say women are more
attuned to teaching.  econ indep, rel zeal, intellectual
curiosity, women may have ben exploited but they were out of
house, econ indep, intell free.  Educ was a giant step for women.

Emma Willard: women responsible for educ as mothers to maintain
Teaching most popular in North, not in South.  women who were too
smart, scared  men. 
pp38-39 in Kaestle re exclusion, inclusion
p 33 and 39  muting culture, social control, reducing crime and
vice and muting cultural diferences.  Do the schools that Kaestle
describes a manifestation of Jefferson's ideas. Jefferson's idea
is to have public not private and Kaestle is speaking of Charity
today's public schools evolve from common schools not charity

common school week
where did they come from/
what was their purpose?
Mann's 12th Report spells it out.

1830-60 antebelllum

Andrew Jackson sets it down for common man.
immigration at this time sets tone for common school
xenophobia begins 
No-Nothing Party no foreigners esp german and irish these were
     Catholics.  it was a religious thing.  consider henry viii
     influx of catholics threatened puritan pop.  numbers are
     actually low and nany went west anyway.
crops is an issue: south need slave labor for cotton and tobacco;
     northwest (midwest) also agrarian does not need intensive
     labor; northeast is manufacturing and urban satisfies this.
reformers come out of closet and everywhere.  "I'd turn that
     school all around, I'd put the door on the other side of the
1830-1840 known as the reform era
In economic booms things get better:  The arts Cooper, Whitman,
     Melville and Emerson, Thoreau.  What we really need is a
     simple life.  Popular is the communal living.  Utopias:
     Bloom community; New Harmony (Owens); Oneida a group of
     perfectionists; Shakers; Mormons burned out of each
     community until Utah; live in harmony with each other.
temperance movement; these were taken on by women, they could
     temper the evil of man.  In west women were key because they
     are a calming effect esp with kids.  revivals aided the
     temperance movement similar to Hiner who speaks of puritans
     fear of kids and for kids.  Maintain Puritan  ideas because
     of increase in complexity and temptations.
feminism and the rights of women:  You don't know when your
     getting it until history comes along. Women teachers
     couldn't date, had many rules unlike the male teachers.  Yes
     they had indep, but they still a long way to go.  As women
     gain confidence some names Dorthea Dix, Emma Hart Willard,
     Eliz Caty Stanton, Wyoming only state that women could vote
     1840's, Antoinette Blackwood friends with Stone at Oberlin
     which was first college to admit women (coed) the 1833 
     Ohio.  That women could learn with men was horrendous idea.
     Ober was training ministers and teachers for the nation
     preparing for the dying death.  Since they were doing this
     it seemed logical to pair them up for this.  They also
     admitted first black students in 1834.  Abolishonists and
     reformers at school.  A very progressive school. Sexism
     wasn't divided by color.  With black freedom abolishionists
     left women's group which caused great rifts.  Heretofore
     both groups were one. Women were turned turned away from
     abolitionist meetings in London; 1% were abolitionists; Met
     in Seneca Falls and created group and wrote up their own

Colonization: sending freed blacks back to Africa: Liberia.  1)
     didn't want them 2) to return them home.  Problem they were
     born here, they were Americans, They weren't African
     anymore.  France today. Still need labor even after Civil
     War.  South believed this so strongly.  South found this
     idea horrible.  Marcus Garvey later on (20th cent) held this
     idea, but he was black.  Ending slavery and sending them
     back.  real problem was who was going to pay for this.  The
     economics it always comes down to the money which killed
     this idea.  
Wm Lloyd Garrison brought about the idea of abolition.  Total to
     end slavery, don't end them anywhere.  The Liberator was his
     paper "I will be heard."  Fred Douglass was important to but
     more on him later.  Underground railroad: Harriet Tubman a
     mythical person, no turning back if with her, even in north
     not acceptable  so had to hide.
Manifest destiny plays a role. War with Mexico begins idea "might
     makes right." grace of god, manifest destiny.  more about
     economics and power than education. 
Regionalism is taking over.  In older communities esp New England
     education was hot topic.  Kaestle p 100 literacy rate in US
     94% of pop in North 84% in white south. 
1830 before common school starts.  The comon school ws to be
     common to all pop, not a school for the common man.
     heterogen on religion and not race.  Common purpose, a
     public philosophy, nation can't be ignorant and free, idea
     is Mann's idea.  Public ed began in Mass.  Fear foreign
     monarchies and NY had better schools was the motivating
     force for publically funded schools in Mass. Always inferior
     when we compare self to others.  Mass feels important.  Gov
     asks Mann to head BOE in Mass. as sec of education.  
Horace Mann at Brown U: law or ministry.  @12 he broke from
     Calvinist tradition, he didn't have the belief.  The role of
     BOE "enlightenment"; profesionalizes teachers; makes 6 month
     school year; brought curriculum; Why should citizens pay
     txes to support schools if they didn't have any or sent them
     elsewhere.  Common school was not Charity school.  THIS IS
     MAJOR  POINT.  Doubtfuk that Mann's plan could be
     successful.  What is the common American culture?

Document assessment:  of 12th report.
Warm-up: What is wanted for common schools? Who is it for? What
do we learn about Mann? About
No model before, why each element included, audience and context
of time.


Is divided into 3 sections: 1) he presents the problem, evils,
the -cides, vices, etc.  That naturally man is homicidal then
suicidal so he needs controls.  2) he speaks of how man has tried
to assign morality on mankind.  He suggests that there have been
many experiments and obviously none have worked.  3) However in
the third section he suggests the one experiment yet to be
tested: education. He says: "Train up a child in the way he
should go, and when he is old he wil not depart from it." 
Education has never been brought in to solve this problem.  He
wishes to concentrate on the child and he has wonderful images of
the students: the 
raw material
embryos of talent
nursling of our schools
rising generation
lithe sapling
tender germ
analogy: schoolroom:society::infant:adult

This is leading to his big finale on the subject of Religion.

Purpose: influence politicans and policy makers, and enlightened
     public, [showing off, self-aggrandizement,] need for moral
     center, instill self control not govt control, give strong
     foundation, prevention not prison, 

Presentation style: You are all sinners a la J Edwards: he is a
     good speechifier from his own religious background and
     training, and following

Assumption: morality can be taught and child can learn it,
     schools are the best place to teach it, and then
     transferable to society, he is the model, 

Audience: policy makers and politicians, What are we learning:
     new law, new transition, other educators, is this public? 
     would parents have seen this? newspapers? They were

Who is the author and what is relation to subj: sec of ed,

Position taken: another piece of commonness for the nation.


no model for public ed in Amer, there was the old deluder law,
     and perhaps the Eur model which is class based which makes
     it different.  Mann's idea is that all should have ed.  The
     whole idea was about adequacy not excellence.  No it is
     being reinterpretated into excellence.  Are we getting
     caught up in excellence and accuracy.  creating workers and

he is setting standards.

Howard Gardner's multiple intelligences

section 1) What is the great equalizer? Use the doc to support
     the point. 

section 2) 

section 3) coming from puritan aspect that child is born ignorant
     and sinful.  

section 4) Bibles are teaching tools, why he spending so much
     time on this.  He is justifying his work and decision on
     this matter of religion.  giving exposure and quality to
     make choice (p 104). swan song, farewell and he just wants
     to leave with the last word on the most controversial aspect
     of his tenure. para 1 and conclusion 110. this is his child.

all things to all people.
Who is going to pay for ed?
Who is going to attend?
to convince to pay and to attend.

what do you see now that were in this document?
school funding, double taxing, priv
prayer in school
spec pops: spec ed, 
community concept, Moral: prevention not prisons

total child: 

impractical, too expensive, would  not benefit masses, breakdown
est barriers, breakdown cath schools, would compromise, fear of
nonEnglish would sumplant (ger, gaelic) nonchild no tax, defend
liberty but not educ, no state could support, state ed then state
church, ed is for the leisure then ppor.

ed prevents crime, stess, wrong ideas, clas diff, priv and church 
sch inadaqu, mixed sch impossible, char against soc and an ofense
to poor who feel stigmatized, sufferage, for immmig is menace so
simlation best in sch, free an gen ed is the natural right of
all, the benefits are worth it, what the state wishes to teach, 

You are asking pop to pay for sch, and they succeeded.

problems may have been inherent in the design from Mann's piece.
     cynical but real

One of the groups, Catholics opposed public schools. Appealed to
Eur for teachers.  Wanted to show culture was able to

Jews did not setup separate schools after seeing the treatment of
Catholic schools.  weekend schools, 

Indian boarding schools, Carlisle, which is now the war college. 

Primary document assessment: 


selected to show one perspective.   
doing it for God
teach them not to say "I can't,"  
Unlearn them vices of slavery - lying

Douglass:  written in 1849, did he write it or an abolitionist to
     add fuel to the fire of abolitionism.  this is written in
     1845 as common schools are beginning.  first published in
     Garrison's Liberator.
Not specific enough. 
Where did he get his education.
written for: self, future, needs a past to leverage the present,
     fredman, he is a teacher, 

bad for blacks but whites, too, makes them lazy.  Why ruin your
     own race too.

How did he get so educated.  he is good ex that blacks can be

In north public schools have many prot sects.  
184-50's coed or single sex?  later.

feminization of teacher. 1899 92% teachers were women. Another
     contradiction. male as prin teacher and women assists.  Men
     move into management.  women salsries 44% less. if women
     taught what did it say of men.  
In midwest, farmers against it because the kids learn and leave. 
     Location of school?  all taxed?  idea of educ for salvation.
     school brought respectability, In ten years 50 men went west
     while 600 women went west.  women wanting indep. had to be
     converts, had to prove piety.  
social control: teaching American values.  Parents are unfit
     guardians for children. How does this hold with Puritanism. 
school as factory.  making educ more efficient. Lancaster system.
     not for literacy, but social control.  Use children to
     Americanize parents.
Philbrick sch is to impose tasks if he likes it great, if not
Harris in 1871 from St L to standardize, order is first, stud
     must conform, be an empty vessel, trained for factory, not
grade school came about by accident.  the school was called an
     egg crate. a dozen hence 12 grades.  each class had 56 kids
     grades sorted by size not ability.  
prin male teacher and asst women teachers

The South reconstruction
blacks outnumber whites, educ helps reunite families sep by
     slavery, here is a new idea: knowledge is power with the
     educ of blacks, 7 mil blacks free instantly, and then the
     whites devastated from War: not properly considered .
13th frees them, 14th citizenship, 15th balck men can vote;;
     before white women???  split between abolitionist and
1865 Freedman's Bureau formed to help blacks and give aid to
     south as whole. 
fed troops in south a sort of marshall plan.  south is not
     agrarian, fields razed.  Attitudes of north to south.
     schoolls were segregatd blacks were getting better educ than
     whites; 1870 4000 sch; 9000 teachers 1/2 black; 200,000
Many of freedman teachers (see Noble Work Done Earnestly) 1880's
     large anti-blacks in north; northern teachers coming to
     urban areas while rural areas had to form self, public,
     equal but separate; educ tied to religion. 
Wilbur Force in Ohio an all black pop.  

Courts: plesy v ferguson 1868 separate but equal
Brown v BOE 1954

public sch more condusive in north and not south. Private
     schools.  Southern white men primary member of public school
Second paper, _The Influence of Emma Hart Willlard_ handed in.

NB to remember status of W in 19th C.
Lots end at end of 19th C and begin of 20th C
Schwager good!
opening Para.
same argument used for single sex sch in earlier C.
WAITE asks:
is hist cyclical?
does everything stay the same and progress is very very slow.
spiral = hybrid of the two.
revisit it since it isn't resolved.
issues same, environment changes.
Escherian-like with so many possibilities.

idea of as our sch cecome more diverse, what is it we are trying
to do?  
spec ed, meals, 
high schools in existing schools, purpose of high school
undecided, larger enrollment of females than males, idea was  not
that hs would masculinize them instead it would feminize men,

Ed Clarke from HaRVARD 1873, he claimed W would damage repro
organs if they studied too hard, rep motherhood argument
association goes back to cyclical concept of hist.

single sex v coed. 
hist context of W in higher ed after Civil War.
by mid 19th C pop accepted coed sit
1870 4700 W in colleges
1890 39500 W
# of reasons:
ability of W to attend
popularity of teaching as career
coed of male colleges
state felt preassure from tax payers
downfall for separate colleges was economic, to maintain two
colleges crazy
Univ of Rochester told women to collect a collective dowery of
$100,000 in 1870. 
even though W had access didn't mean they had equal education.
they were not part of the sch
If got a PhD they still did not have access to higher end jobs. 
Dean of W like dorm mother, phy ed teach, health related...
Educ would make W better mothers.  Mt H was the model.
1900 all seven sisters founded.  
Wellesley taught by women 1870's Durants were childless.  Mt H
idea of creating educated women. Need to give back to society.  
Least active was Radcliffe.  waiting for Harvard to go coed which
happened in 1969.  Considered Harvard annex. Barnard 1889 set
mold for Radcliffe.  
What happened to these W grads: 1920, not attractive, 

Might there be inherently good developmental qualities to an all
boy school? networking, power struggle, no there aren't any
pedagogical reasons, Why do we have single sex sch.  W had to
fight for ed so it seems obvious.  To counter maleness.  


progressive era idea of progress moving forward, many things
happening at this time.
See dewey web
large immigrant movement pop doubles in 40 years.
how does this change and effect educ
sch places of social control?
now with so many new imm and freedmen how does this happen
women's movement, imm, and wealth. CLASSES
vert integration, asembly line, new indust rev, motorization,
philanthropic idea Carnegie  Gospel of wealth which advises how
     wealthy to advance social causes.
Carnegie gave to libraries, in his essays calls upon milliionaire
     to give it to the poor before he dies, salvation.  poor in
     money rich in admiration of man.  because he kived one part
     of the wrld is a little bit better. However, during his life
     he was ruthless.  Puritan notion cruel in life now find way
     into heaven.  One could rise to wealth from nothing, mythic
     proportions.  Horatio Alger. rags to riches.  we want
     producive society, but  a few controlled wealth.  
Business has a big effect on society and educ.  Schools wanted to
     follow idea of corporation.  Professional management in educ
tracking via IQ begins.  voc and industrial sch evolve.  IQs
     separate wheat from chaff.  Industrialists were giving money
     to train workers.  JPMorgan gave lots to creat industrial
     sch since they were not doing what business needed. Since
     society has changed, industrial rev, so much sch.  going
     after hand minded, the worker.
_Learning to Labor_ 
stud trained to work in factory and not to go to college.  Since
     they weren't succeeding in sch fgor coll why not train for

How would Jefferson or other early 19th C educ have thought about
this idea of specialized sch?
     prepared for work not for the mind; wouldn't have dealt with
     these folks; sense of egalitarianism; trains pop to be
     better citizens; consider the 1/10 idea: only 1/10 will rise
     to the top.
schools want to follow the model of business.  
the other transformation is the growth of the hs.  More
     opportunity for kids to stay in sch because families were
     making more money, so one or two could stay in sch without
     taking from family funds.  This is for second or third
     generation imm as they became setled. Not for new imm.  hs
     pics show them having fun, a leisure class is evolving.
     Colleges were moving from acad to social networking,
     athletics begins to rise.  W could not handle hs so W were
     in elem sch.  
1901 Marg Haley compares teachers to laborors. Union?

How does Dewey's idea fit into this?
Dewey: began as philosopher, interest in educ how we find
     knowledge acquire it; 1890 head of phil, psych, and pedagogy
     or dept of ed, school of ed.  1904 came to TC practical ed,
     child centered pedagogy, transforming society training
     practically educated children then you could transform
     society thereby eliminating society's ills.  Dewey p34
     experiential education, child centered, child understanding,
     should be models of democracy and for democ.  
How can this work in a sch in 1910? In common lang: new imm who
     teaches them.  They had to laugh at them.  Can't be done in
     a large system with grades, large classes... He is in
     conflict with success of training for business, schools run
     like business is contrary to Dewey.  His ideas are radical.
     Dewey more Jeffersonian, but too radical. Dewey comes from
     his time: socialism, Marx, Descartes, and comes up against
     the status quo of the time.  a man in the wrong time.  Value
     of educ in America as a whole.  Business dev leisure class,
     so why not fix if it ain't broke.  legalized slavery is the
     model and then Dewey comes along with a democracy thing.  
In context of his time: is it about adequacy or excellence.

To BT Washington & DuBois:

Lynching reaches high, race riots, 1896 Plessy v Ferguson, these
     2 blacks are lightening rods of controversy
Which of these two is more like Dewey?

BTWash was born a slave. attended a free school taught by a
     Northern black went to Hampton and then founded Tuskegee
     with help of whites philanthropists _Up From Slavery_

DuBois from a Northern free family grew up in New Bedford went to
     Fisk in Tenn a black sch, because he could afford and could
     get into.  1st black to get PhD from Harvard.  1903 _Souls
     of Black Folks_ in which he criticizes BTWash. Taught at

Both had same goal to educ blacks. 
In BTWash peice read between the lines.  Highest number of
     lynchings, not time to do black power thing.

DuBois's knows from elitism.  He was one of the 1/10th, he was
     separate from his own race.

how does this fit between Dewey and DuBois?  How does friction
between BTWash and DuBois

Dewey and factory model?
How much of these things are we still living with?

Now the next and last paper:
Don't editorialize.  


Tusk/Hamp founded by North philanthropists.

Expos aud whites and educ blacks
b-d competing for same aud
Trottier ed of Boston Guardian criticizes BTW

Niagara movement 1904 aggressively demands equal rites in educ,
     NAACP evolves, can only be one way pop can be educated, this
     caused split between BTW and DuB, who controls sch: pop or
     govt.  Who decides appropriate educ for a pop?

progressive era reforming something that is already there. 
     trying to rework Mann's idea.  Mann was creating now we are
     reforming.  Once you have graded schools, supers, you then

Compulsory schooling law, Filbrick's graded school, until 16,

Teacher's Unions  

silk purse out of sow's ear; new wine in old bottles.

no spec ed, biling, should we have ed for imm (ques of mental
     capacity, how one race rises from one level to another by
     immitation or teaching, can a race progress, higher not
     dominant society, WA Thomas 1912 referring to both im and

Fass doc p1 sch 4 social control
p28-29  Henry Moskowitz
pigment of skin = degree of intell a thought

still young country a bit worried about stability.  Pop had
     shifted quickly so a worry exists, minor as it was.

How to respect culture of imm child  p 31  But...  theory was
respecting culture.

what are schools for: saddled with social ideas which couldn't be
     done in other parts, reform is glue  p32-3  responsibilities
     of sch getting bigger and bigger in the model of 19thC sch
     in 1847.  The role the sch is supposed to fill. now has role
     church used to fill?  

sch are hierarchy because it works in business. 

consider some of the seeds planted then and in effect today. 
     Impractical to say we are going to change the whole thing. 
     Have to rebuild etc around existing, fixing the removing

Jacob Riis: How the Other Half Lives,  Raze it, rebuild it.
     played to audience to help control imm, plays to TRoos then
     chief of police in NYC.  pics tell a lot while text is
     offensive.  1890

Democracy takes on American values and seems contradictory.  Diff
     from Dewey idea of democ ed.  

1920s: social context, 1st 20 yrs of C.  
power of big business, small group controls a great deal, sherman
     anti trust act 1902, tries to level the playing field; anti
     monopolies to limit corps; WWI German immin MWest suffered
     great patriotism, German curricula removed, increased idea
     of nationalism, brief depression then boom after WWI,
     another boom in advertising no rules or regulates,
     Infomercials are not reglatd.

W suffrage movement: women could bring more to America esp after
     WWI, they would have tempered the violence, getting vote
     19th A 1920 would calm men and bring morality.  Harlem Ren,
     expatriots in Fr, rebirth of KKK in response to for and cath
     bringing nationalism.  Imm drying up jobs so fear and
     nativism.  How are imm kids going to feel in sch.   Tension
     between rel and sci Scopes. darwin affected this change in
     1880s.  sci called natural philosophy.  hitting it again in
     1920s.  tenn: John Scopes teaches evolution. Jennings v
     Darrow.  evolution v creationism.  

1880-1910 majority of activity of Progressive era with obvious

Social rev roaring 20s,