Lee G. Bolman & Terrence E. Deal
Subtitled: The Leadership Kaleidoscope
Reframing is a key idea.
Failure due to lack of imagination.
Frames concept employs usable knowledge.
- specialized roles
- formal relationships
- division of labor
- rules, policies, procedures, and hierarchies
- Problems arise when structure does not fit situation
- Human Resources
- extended family
- feelings, prejudices, skills, and limitations
- tailor org to people
- interests compete for limited resources
- conflict is rampant
- bargaining, negotiation, coercion, and compromise
- Problems arise when power is concentrated in wrong
- or when so broadly dispersed nothing gets done.
- cultural and social anthropology
- tribes, theater, or carnivals
- cultures on rituals, ceremonies, stories, heroes, myths
- org is actors
- Integrating the Four Frames
- Multiframe thinking requires movement beyond narrow
See Overview Table of Four Frames
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Specialized tasks, sequential work, close supervision, top down.
Blueprint for pattern of expectations and procedures.
stable environments are hierarchies and rule oriented.
to achieve goals and objectives
rationality prevails over personal and external pressure
designed to fit orgs circumstances.
increase efficiency through specialization & division of
forms of coordination and control to insure success
problems solved through restructuring.
1. How to allocate workknowledge or skill
customers or clients
2. How to coordinate different roles
Combining vertical and lateral power.
As a group, the org decides course of action, this is lateral
or horizontal decision making. Once all agree, consensus, then
the leader can act in vertical fashion because all have had a
stake in its creation. Problems arise in top down
Size and Age
Strategy and Goals
Growth of Org
Zebra pages 77 & 332
one boss is top down
dual authority task oriented
Simple hierarchy is layers
Circle borders on "web inclusion"
All-channel network is the web. Star within the circle.
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Human Resources Frame
McGregor of MIT helped develop ideas. "Open system,"
communication of good and bad news, self-managing teams, peer-controlled pay system. This frame regards people's skills,
attitudes, energy, commitment. This frame champions idea that
orgs can be stimulating, rewarding, and productive. If org
concerns itself with it's people's welfare then it will succeed.
Maslow's hierarchy of human needs:
Physiological (oxygen, water, food, comfort)
Safety (safe from attack)
Belongingness and Love
Esteem (to feel value of self)
Self-actualization (to reach one's potential)
Manager's assumptions about people become self-fulfilling
prophecies. If you have low expectations you will get low
If conflicts arise people tend to:
become apathetic, passive, indifferent
resist (sabotage, featherbedding, deception)
try to climb hierarchy to better jobs
form groups (unions)
teach children negative things about work
Improving HR Management
David Owen Wales 1771, knitting mills. Stopped child labor,
sent them to schools. He cared for his workers by giving clean
safe homes. Preschool, child care, and schools. He knew value
of human capital.
Invest in People
Provide job security
Promote from within
Train and Educate Dewey: Learn by doing OJT
Share the wealth
Autonomy and Participation
Job Enrichment and Cross-Utilization
Democracy and Egalitarianism
TQM = Total Quality Management
T-Groups: "sensitivity training," participants and
researchers quorum after session to discuss observations.
Trainers and participants join in groups as a sort of "plenary."
Honest feedback is crucial.
Survey workers re motivation, communication, leadership,
OD = Organization Development became product of TQM, T-groups, and Surveys.
Putting it in Action
What is happening?
Why do people behave as they do?
What can I do?
problem caused by other people
develop private, unilateral diagnose and solution
get other person to change by logic, influence, force
if other resists become defensive
Result is wasted energy, strained relationship, deterioration
in decision-making processes.
Emphasize common goals & mutual influence
Communicate openly publicly test assumptions
Combine Advocacy with Inquiry
When mangers feel vulnerable, they revert to self-protection.
Barbarian's Online Test Page
Groups needed to solve problems
creates informal roles with so many formal roles around
informal rules evolve
develop listening skills
agree on basics
search for commonness
Doubt your infallibility
differences of personalities are a groups responsiblity
Groups create shared vision, Leader steers the ship.
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Sees orgs as alive screaming arenas. Political Frame appears to
be primary determinant of success in certain jobs. p 278
Focus of the political Frame is not on resolution
of conflict, but on strategy and tactics.
Orgs are coalitions
differences among coalition members
scarce resources and differences = conflict
bargaining, negotiating, jockeying
PF Insists Orgs are Coalitions
Org should clear and consistent goal(s)
established by person with authority
articulate between structural and political.
result can be confusing with multiplicity of goals
many in conflict
Authority is just one power
forces groups to articulate need and to mobilize
players = authority + partisans
to those with info and expertise
who does rewarding has power
alliances and networks
Access and control of agendas
Control of meaning and symbols
not a problem as much as something is amiss
not to be resolved as much as to form strategy and tactic
has benefits and costs
natural and inevitable
challenges status quo
encourages new ideas and approaches
Horizontal: between groups, depts
Vertical: between levels
Cultural: groups with diff values, traditions, beliefs.
Managers should be "constructive" politicians.
political frame offers different perspectives
Skills of Political Manager
sets goals and schedules
statements of interests and direction
provide a vision and strategy for achieving vision
provide direction while tending to needs of stakeholders
while gathering plant too.
a vision without a strategy is an illusion
find order amid chaos
move with speed and focus
Mapping the Political Terrain
know where explosives are
channels of informal communications
id principal agents of influence
possibility of internal and external mobilization
anticipate strategies of others
draw it up on paper
Networking and Building Coalitions
Id relevant relationships
Assess who might resist, why and how strongly
develop relationships with opponents to facilitate
When 3 fails be forceful or subtle
No strategy will work without power base
Find friends, cheerleaders
"horse trading", negotiating
Bargaining and Negotiation
bargaining is central to decision making
Creating Value vs Claiming Value
Creative = be inventive and cooperative for win-win
Claiming = be forceful, to achieve win-lose
Positional bargianing means you start at a place and give
Principled bargaining: emphasizes creating not claiming
1. separate people from problem
2. focus on intersts, not positions
3. invent options for mutual gain
4. insist on objective criteria: standards of fairness
Individuals empower self through understanding
Bureaucrcies leave indiv feeling vulnerable, powerless,
adversaries are both difficult and interesting
Let them go
tell them your vision
state your best understanding of their position
Id your own contribution
What you plan to do
appeal to higher order: morals, ethics
What is ethical
following rules that are understood and accepted?
comfortable discussing and defending your action?
Would you want someone to do it to you?
What if everyone acted that way?
Are there more ethical ways?
conflicts as well as shared interests
Bottom-Up Pol action
civil rights movement
Political Barriers to Control from the Top
Central admin institutes
Workers are surprised, not in process
Lesson is to involve community
Agents of change in larger ecosystem
All orgs have power
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Organizations reek of symbolism from the edifices they work in to
their mascots, colors, and products. That some company names
have become words, ie xerox, scotch tape, coke, attest to the
power of symbolism.
Meaning, belief, and faith are central to symbolism
not what happened but what it means
how people interpret
life is ambiguous
symbols are created to eliminate confusion, ambiguity
To provide direction, and anchor hope and faith
They form culture tapestry, myths, rituals, ceremonies, and
sees life as more fluid than linear
embody and express culture
symbols help find meaning in chaos, give clarity in
confusion, predictability in mystery
myths, fairy tales, stories provide explanations
rituals and ceremonies give heritage
Metaphor, humor, and play loosen up and provide depth to
MYTHS: Provide stories behind the story. They can blind us to
new info and learning opportunities. Myths are not authority.
They can keep us sane. All orgs rely on myths or sagas. Myths
create internal cohesion, sense of direction, confidence.
STORIES & FAIRY TALES: They convey info, morals, values.
RITUAL: Gives structure and meaning to daily life. Morning
Coffee. Used to create order, clarity, and predictability.
CEREMONY: Grander than Ritual, more elaborate, less frequent.
They punctuate special events.
METAPHOR, HUMOR, & PLAY show "as if" quality of symbols.
Metaphor: Cook says he is a professional, an artist, a business
person and a worker. Humor allows for loosening of tension.
Organizations are Cultures
Meetings attract people, problems and solutions
An org without a plan is rudderless, short-sighted, and
Plans are symbols
Plans become games
Plans become excuses for interaction
Plans become advertisements
Evaluations are a ritual to appease the natives.
Evaluation is high drama and symbolizes success or failure.
Power is inherently ambiguous
Orgs are judged primarily by appearance or symbols
How one becomes a member is important
done by ritual, applying, interviewing etc
Diversity gives competitive edge
Example, not command, holds team together
Specialized Language fosters cohesion and commitment
Stories record History and Give Group Identity
Humor and Play Reduce Tension and Encourage Creativity
Informal players contribute disproportionately to Formal
Soul is the Secret of success
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Matching Frame to Situation
Choosing A Frame
Reframing in Action
Essence of reframing is examining the same situation from
multiple vantage points to develop holistic picture. Each Frame
provides advantages, but also blind spots.
Structure: ignores everything outside jurisdiction, rules,
policies, org charts. Does this mean schools should be
concerned with things in the home etc? Reliance on structure
negates other frames influence.
Human Resources: can cling to romanticized view of human
nature. Not all are looking for growth and collaboration.
Politics: clinging can create cynicism and mistrust. Often
misunderstood to be amoral, scheming, and unconcerned about the
Symbolic: can be mere fluff or camoflage
Pages 282-293 provide a great look at how to utilize the
frames in action. Cindy Marshall in new position and how she
could handle given situations to her advantage/disadvantage.
Leadership has great reverence.
It exists only in the relationships and in the imagination
and perceptions of the engaged parties.
We expect leaders to persuade or inspire not coerce
We expect leaders to produce cooperative efforts
Obedience to leaders is voluntary not forced
Authority is often an impediment to leadership
Leaders make things happen and things make leaders happen.
Context determines what to do
Leaders are not independent actors
Leadership is a sutble process of mutual influence fusing
thought, feeling, and action to produce cooperative effort in the
service of purposes and values of both the leader and the
Single frame leaders fail!
Good leaders have vision, strength, commitment and are
situational (they adapt).
They set standards, create focus and direction, ability to
communicate vision, doing work well, inspire trust and build
Leadership varies with the situation.
do their homework
rethink the relationship of structure, strategy, and
focus on implementation
experiment, evaluate, adapt
Human Resource Leaders:
believe in people and communicate their belief
visible and accessible
clarify what they want and what they can get
assess the distribution of power and interests
build linkages to key stakeholders
persuade first, negotiate second, coerce when necessary
use symbols to capture attention
discover and communicate vision
tell stories, See Gettysburg Address
Hopeful beginnings, turbulent middle, and a discouraging
Change rationally conceived traditionally fail
Restructuring, Recruiting, and Retraining are simultaneous
actions to effective Reframing
Retraining is crucial esp when new technology comes in
Veterans become neophytes
In realignment structure provides clarity, predictablity, and
Change creates conflict
As change emerges camps form: supporters, opponents, fence-sitters
Often status quo prevails and change agents lose
Arenas provide rules, referees, and spectators
Successful change requires an ability to frame issues, build
coalitions, and establish arenas
Ritual is essential in change
The Factory: Excellence and Authorship
The Family: Caring and Love
The Jungle: Justice and Power
The Temple: Faith and Significance
Chapter 20 pages 354-376 provides a great scenario of using
the Frames in action. New Principal walks into problems and
uses frames to solve them.
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